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不同土地覆被下岩溶洞穴滴水的水文特征

范宏岱 胡运迪 周忠发 胡德勇 张宇超 黄正周 王登超 尚运 李航

范宏岱,胡运迪,周忠发,等. 不同土地覆被下岩溶洞穴滴水的水文特征[J]. 中国岩溶,2024,43(0):1-13 doi: 10.11932/karst2024y018
引用本文: 范宏岱,胡运迪,周忠发,等. 不同土地覆被下岩溶洞穴滴水的水文特征[J]. 中国岩溶,2024,43(0):1-13 doi: 10.11932/karst2024y018
FAN Hongdai, HU Yundi, ZHOU Zhongfa, HU Deyong, ZHANG Yuchao, HUANG Zhengzhou, WANG Dengchao, SHANG Yun, LI Hang. Hydrological characteristics of drip water in karst caves under different land cover[J]. CARSOLOGICA SINICA. doi: 10.11932/karst2024y018
Citation: FAN Hongdai, HU Yundi, ZHOU Zhongfa, HU Deyong, ZHANG Yuchao, HUANG Zhengzhou, WANG Dengchao, SHANG Yun, LI Hang. Hydrological characteristics of drip water in karst caves under different land cover[J]. CARSOLOGICA SINICA. doi: 10.11932/karst2024y018

不同土地覆被下岩溶洞穴滴水的水文特征

doi: 10.11932/karst2024y018
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金面上项目(42072278);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合基础ZK[2022]一般306)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    范宏岱(1997-),男,硕士,自然地理学专业,喀斯特地貌于洞穴方向。E-mail:1658878485@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    胡运迪(1991-),女,副教授,主要从事岩溶区水循环碳循环研究。E-mail:hydhydro@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P641.12

Hydrological characteristics of drip water in karst caves under different land cover

  • 摘要: 土地覆被类型是水循环过程的的重要影响因子,为探究不同土地覆被下洞穴滴水的水文特征及其影响因素,本文选取了贵州岩溶区不同土地覆被下的清江洞(土层厚,植被中等)、广顺洞(土层薄,植被好)和石将军洞(土层薄,植被差,顶板厚)3个洞穴,基于滴水流量、土壤含水量及气象数据进行研究。结果表明:(1)3个洞穴的滴水流量均存在季节性变化规律,滴水在降水输入少的旱季易发生断流;(2)由于土壤的截留和储存作用,使得洞顶土层覆盖厚的清江洞相较于广顺洞和石将军洞在雨季8月到10月期间表现出特有的流量低值现象,且全年土壤含水量的最低值也出现在此时期;(3)3个洞穴滴水流量的年均值为石将军洞(1.185 mL·min−1)>清江洞(0.600 mL·min−1)>广顺洞(0.236 mL·min−1),流量的全年稳定程度为石将军洞>广顺洞>清江洞;(4)植被对洞穴滴水水文特征的影响弱于土壤,土壤发育较好的洞穴(清江洞)比土层薄但植被覆盖高的广顺洞全年更容易断流,另外顶板厚度大的洞穴(石将军洞)全年滴水流量稳定程度最好。综上,洞穴滴水流量除受降水、气温、湿度等气象条件影响外,还受土地覆被、含水层顶板厚度的影响。

     

  • 图  1  清江洞、广顺洞、石将军洞的地理位置及顶部土地覆被

    Figure  1.  The geographical location and top land cover of Qingjiang Cave, Guangshun Cave, and Shijiangjun Cave

    图  2  广顺洞(a)、清江洞(b)、石将军洞(c)滴水流量及当地气象数据的季节变化

    其中,图2(b)中QJ—6的滴水流量使用右侧的纵坐标轴,图2(c)中SJ—5的滴水流量使用右侧纵坐标轴

    Figure  2.  Seasonal variations of drip discharge rate and meteorological data in Guangshun Cave (a), Qingjiang Cave (b), and Shijiangjun Cave (c)

    图  3  广顺洞(a)、清江洞(b)、石将军洞(c)洞穴滴水电导率、饱和指数与降水的季节变化

    Figure  3.  Seasonal variations of drip conductivity, saturation index and precipitation in Gwangshun Cave (a), Qingjiang Cave (b) and Shijongjun Cave (c)

    图  4  清江洞土壤含水量和各气象数据季节变化

    Figure  4.  Seasonal variations of soil water content and meteorological data in Qingjiang Cave

    图  5  清江洞A组(a)、B组(b)、C组(c)、D(d)组土壤含水量、气象数据以及洞穴滴水流量季节变化

    Figure  5.  Seasonal variations of soil water content, meteorological data, and drip discharge rate in Groups A (a), B (b), C (c), and D (d) in Qingjiang Cave

    图  6  广顺洞、清江洞、石将军洞洞穴滴水流量的对比

    其中, QJ—6和SJ—5的滴水流量使用右侧的纵坐标轴

    Figure  6.  Comparisons of drip discharge rate between Guangshun Cave, Qingjiang Cave, and Shijiangjun Cave

    表  1  监测期内3个洞穴的滴水流量统计值

    Table  1.   The statistics of drip discharge rate in the three caves during the monitoring period

    石将军 广顺 清江
    日期
    流量
    /mL·min-1
    日期
    流量
    /mL·min-1
    日期
    流量
    /mL·min-1
    2021/5/30 1.118 2021/5/30 0.411 2021/6/14 0.715
    2021/6/27 1.163 2021/6/27 0.207 2021/7/19 1.882
    2021/7/19 1.258 2021/7/19 0.399 2021/8/29 0.099
    2021/8/28 1.363 2021/8/28 0.330 2021/9/21 0.074
    2021/9/20 1.260 2021/9/20 0.195 2021/10/27 0.112
    2021/10/30 1.109 2021/10/30 0.198 2021/11/28 0.237
    2021/11/27 1.166 2021/11/27 0.132 2021/12/30 0.022
    2021/12/30 1.156 2021/12/30 0.075 2022/1/23 0.156
    2022/1/23 1.237 2022/1/23 0.063 2022/3/6 0.185
    2022/3/5 1.105 2022/3/5 0.222 2022/4/3 2.320
    2022/4/16 1.086 2022/4/16 0.216 2022/5/14 1.444
    2022/5/14 1.228 2022/5/14 0.405 2022/6/18 0.440
    2022/6/18 1.273 2022/6/18 0.243 2022/7/11 0.224
    2022/7/16 1.073 2022/7/16 0.204
    平均值 1.185 0.236 0.600
    变差系数 Cv 0.072 0.481 1.264
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  清江洞基于土壤含水量曲线形态的分组

    Table  2.   The four groups of Qingjiang Cave based on the morphology of soil water content curve

    分组
    日期
    平均温度/℃
    平均湿度/%
    降水量/mm
    A 2021/6/14—2021/7/19 25.1 77% 108.5
    B 2021/7/19—2021/10/9 24.9 72% 237.8
    C 2021/10/9—2022/3/16 8.2 82% 239.8
    D 2022/3/16—2022/7/11 18.9 79% 417.5
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-12-12
  • 录用日期:  2024-04-03
  • 修回日期:  2024-03-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-04-28

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