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典型岩溶高原边缘夷平面沉积特征及古气候环境

吴亮君 王璞珺 张晶 辛存林 容悦冰 陈伟海 张远海 黄超

吴亮君,王璞珺,张 晶,等. 典型岩溶高原边缘夷平面沉积特征及古气候环境−以湘西洛塔及贾坝剖面为例[J]. 中国岩溶,2024,43(1):1-17 doi: 10.11932/karst2023y030
引用本文: 吴亮君,王璞珺,张 晶,等. 典型岩溶高原边缘夷平面沉积特征及古气候环境−以湘西洛塔及贾坝剖面为例[J]. 中国岩溶,2024,43(1):1-17 doi: 10.11932/karst2023y030
WU Liangjun, WANG Pujun, ZHANG Jing, XIN Cunlin, RONG Yuebing, CHEN Weihai, ZHANG Yuanhai, HUANG Chao. Sedimentary and palaeoclimatic characteristics of planation surface at the edge of typical karst plateau: A case study of Luota and Jiaba sections in Xiangxi[J]. CARSOLOGICA SINICA. doi: 10.11932/karst2023y030
Citation: WU Liangjun, WANG Pujun, ZHANG Jing, XIN Cunlin, RONG Yuebing, CHEN Weihai, ZHANG Yuanhai, HUANG Chao. Sedimentary and palaeoclimatic characteristics of planation surface at the edge of typical karst plateau: A case study of Luota and Jiaba sections in Xiangxi[J]. CARSOLOGICA SINICA. doi: 10.11932/karst2023y030

典型岩溶高原边缘夷平面沉积特征及古气候环境——以湘西洛塔及贾坝剖面为例

doi: 10.11932/karst2023y030
基金项目: 中文基金
详细信息
    作者简介:

    吴亮君:中文简介

  • 中图分类号: P532

Sedimentary and palaeoclimatic characteristics of planation surface at the edge of typical karst plateau: A case study of Luota and Jiaba sections in Xiangxi

  • 摘要: 文章对云贵高原边缘洛塔期(洛塔剖面)和召市期(贾坝剖面)夷平面风化壳进行粒度、磁化率、孢粉等方面的研究,探索其沉积特征及古气候响应。结果显示:洛塔剖面和贾坝剖面风化壳都以黏土和不等粒砂为主,但洛塔剖面岩性和粒度变化比较明显,为杂色黏土质粉砂和粉砂质黏土互层,夹一层砂砾石;贾坝剖面岩性和粒度相对稳定,主要为粉砂黏土。洛塔剖面Mz、Md、SC/D值以及磁化率值整体较高,但变化幅度小且快,贾坝剖面Mz、Md、SC/D值以及磁化率值相对波动较大,由此推断两条剖面所揭示的沉积环境都整体湿润,但贾坝剖面显示出小的干燥波动,即洛塔期夷平面风化壳沉积时期气候为温暖湿润型,召市期夷平面风化壳沉积时期气候为温凉干燥型,这与孢粉中大量水龙骨属(Polypodium)、松属(Pinus)指代的气候意义相同。对比孢粉组合及前人资料,推测洛塔剖面风化壳可能为新近纪早期开始形成,该夷平面可能形成于中新世,而贾坝剖面可能形成于第四纪早期,该夷平面可能形成于更新世。

     

  • 图  1  西南岩溶区高程剖面及湘西地区夷平面分布图

    Figure  1.  Elevation profile of the karst area in Southwest China and distribution of the planation surface in Xiangxi

    图  2  湘西洛塔-召市地区地质概况图

    Figure  2.  Geological map of Luota–Zhaoshi area in Xiangxi

    图  3  洛塔期与召市期夷平面实景图

    Figure  3.  Realistic view of the planation surface in Luota period and Zhaoshi period

    图  4  洛塔剖面地层性质柱状图

    Figure  4.  Stratigraphic histogram of Luota section

    图  5  贾坝剖面地层性质柱状图

    Figure  5.  Stratigraphic histogram of Jiaba section

    图  6  洛塔剖面与贾坝剖面风化壳沉积物组成、粒度参数和磁化率垂直变化特征

    Figure  6.  Vertical variation characteristics of sediment composition, grain size and magnetic susceptibility of weathering crust in Luota section and Jiaba section

    图  7  洛塔与贾坝剖面孢粉组合特征图版

    1-15.水龙骨属Polypodium(1-9样品编号为LT-3,10-15样品编号为LT-Y2) 16.罗汉松属Podcarpus(样品编号LT-Y2) 17-21.松属Pinus(17-20样品编号为LT-Y1,21样品编号为LT-3) 22-23.禾本科Gramineae(22样品编号为JB-1,23样品编号为JB-Y1)

    Figure  7.  Sporepollen assemblage chart of Luota section and Jiaba section

    1-15. Polypodium (sample numbers of 1-9: LT-3; sample numbers of 10-15: LT-Y2); 16. Podcarpus (sample numbers: LT-Y2); 17-21. Pinus (sample numbers of 17-20: LT-Y1; sample number of 21: LT-3); 22-23. Gramineae (sample number of 22: JB-1; sample number of 23: JB-Y1)

    表  1  湘西片区岩溶地貌与夷平面发育特征

    Table  1.   Development characteristics of karst landform and planation surface in Xiangxi

    序号岩溶
    分层
    夷平面级别
    (北区)[19]
    区域夷平
    面举例
    (山名)[19]
    湘西岩溶
    台面发
    育期[20-21]
    湘西岩溶
    台面海
    拔/m
    堆积
    [21]
    湘西岩溶台
    面形成时代
    (推测)[19-21]
    地貌
    类型
    组合
    1第I层1~2级壶瓶山、西海、西晃山、腊尔山、大青山等梯子岩期>1 300残坡积、冰
    水堆积
    古近纪孤峰、落水洞、残留洞穴、石林、
    溶丘
    23级八洞仙山期1 230红色砂砾岩
    堆积
    新近纪溶丘、漏斗、洼地、竖井、垄脊、石牙、石林、落水洞
    3亚不寺期1 030流水相堆积新近纪末−
    第四纪初
    丘峰深谷、垄脊、石林、石牙
    4第II层4级大米界、何家山、排碧等洛塔河谷期(高谷−宽谷−车水坪湖亚期)650~900红黄黏土沙土砾石、灰黑
    淤泥
    更新世河谷、峡谷、丘陵
    5第III层5级宝凤湖、南华山等洛塔河谷期
    (峡谷亚期)
    400~600砂砾石亚黏土全新世暗河、水平溶洞、漏斗、洼地
    6第IV层6级沅水、澧水
    两岸
    近现代期300~400黏土、砾石全新世水平溶洞、浅洼地、浅漏斗、暗河
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  洛塔和贾坝剖面的沉积特征数据表

    Table  2.   Sedimentary characteristics of Luota section and Jiaba section

    样品
    编号
    成分/%质量磁化率
    ×10−8 m3·kg−1
    样品
    编号
    成分 %质量磁化率
    ×10−8 m3·kg−1
    样品
    编号
    成分 %质量磁化率
    ×10−8 m3·kg−1
    黏粒粉砂细砂黏粒粉砂细砂黏粒粉砂细砂中砂粗砂
    LT0140.1659.100.7426.25LT1642.7456.830.4317.97JB0138.0753.876.391.280.3910.31
    LT0241.2658.240.5016.09LT1741.8057.820.3820.94JB0234.8455.508.860.670.1211.56
    LT0343.0556.610.3518.26LT1841.7257.780.5022.50JB0341.7153.924.370012.66
    LT0439.6759.770.5624.22LT1942.8556.760.3919.22JB0435.9156.887.210011.88
    LT0540.1759.370.5221.88LT2041.0458.410.5524.38JB0543.7552.154.110011.72
    LT0642.4257.260.3216.88LT2143.0156.640.3519.38JB0641.0055.763.240012.03
    LT0742.4657.140.4019.69LT2241.9257.550.5322.34JB0744.2250.265.520014.69
    LT0842.8656.560.5816.72LT2339.7359.650.6210.47JB0842.1352.215.660015.00
    LT0943.2256.470.3220.51LT2439.7359.550.7311.72JB0937.6153.227.860.980.3312.19
    LT1044.5555.090.3615.16LT2542.4756.970.5611.09JB1035.4851.7612.070.560.1312.19
    LT1142.0757.600.3418.44LT2642.8756.590.559.53JB1136.2754.668.290.620.1714.38
    LT1242.0857.590.3314.69LT2739.4659.191.358.59JB1236.6254.697.780.760.1613.91
    LT1342.9156.780.3115.47LT2841.3757.351.2910.31JB1342.5551.995.460014.22
    LT1442.1356.930.9412.81LT2941.6657.490.8610.63JB1436.0654.978.010.840.1214.06
    LT1541.9757.350.6822.81LT3042.7456.790.4811.56JB1538.6058.373.030014.69
    下载: 导出CSV
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