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岩溶区典型工业型城市地下水水化学特征及成因机制

卢丽 陈余道 邹胜章 樊连杰 林永生 王喆

卢 丽,陈余道,邹胜章,等. 岩溶区典型工业型城市地下水水化学特征及成因机制[J]. 中国岩溶,2022,41(4):588-598 doi: 10.11932/karst20220407
引用本文: 卢 丽,陈余道,邹胜章,等. 岩溶区典型工业型城市地下水水化学特征及成因机制[J]. 中国岩溶,2022,41(4):588-598 doi: 10.11932/karst20220407
LU Li, CHEN Yudao, ZOU Shengzhang, FAN Lianjie, LIN Yongsheng, WANG Zhe. Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality evaluation of karst groundwater in typical industrial cities[J]. CARSOLOGICA SINICA, 2022, 41(4): 588-598. doi: 10.11932/karst20220407
Citation: LU Li, CHEN Yudao, ZOU Shengzhang, FAN Lianjie, LIN Yongsheng, WANG Zhe. Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality evaluation of karst groundwater in typical industrial cities[J]. CARSOLOGICA SINICA, 2022, 41(4): 588-598. doi: 10.11932/karst20220407

岩溶区典型工业型城市地下水水化学特征及成因机制

doi: 10.11932/karst20220407
基金项目: 广西重点研发计划项目(桂科AB22080070);中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20221758);国家自然科学基金项目(41807218)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    卢丽(1985-),女,硕士,副研究员,主要研究方向:岩溶水文地质环境地质调查评价。E-mail:luli@mail.cgs.gov.cn

    通讯作者:

    陈余道(1965-),男,博士,教授,主要研究方向:污染水文地质学、水资源保护与可持续利用。E-mail:cyd0056@vip.sina.com

  • 中图分类号: P641.12

Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality evaluation of karst groundwater in typical industrial cities

  • 摘要: 文章以广西柳州市岩溶地下水为研究对象,在岩溶水文地质调查和样品采集测试的基础上,采用数理统计法、水化学方法(Piper图、Gibbs图、离子比值系数,矿物饱和指数计算)、因子分析法和模糊综合评价法,分析工业型城市岩溶地下水水化学特征及形成机制,开展岩溶地下水质量评价。结果表明,研究区岩溶地下水为中-弱碱性水,Ca2+、Mg2+、HCO3、SO42−是主要的阴阳离子,水化学类型以HCO3-Ca型和HCO3-Ca·Mg型为主,且城区的SO42−型水的比例远高于非城区。区内岩溶地下水水化学组分及演化主要受水-岩作用、工业污染、城镇生活污染和农业活动等主控因素的影响,贡献率分别为31.52%、25.15%、18.12%和10.74%。其中,城区的水化学组分受人类活动的影响程度大于非城区的。矿物饱和指数表明,区内方解石和绝大多数白云石为饱和状态,而石膏和盐岩均为溶解状态。不同功能区的水化学敏感指标有差异,工业区以重金属为主,农业区以三氮为主,生活区以K+、Na+、Cl、SO42−为主。研究区整体水质较好,Ⅰ-Ⅲ类水的比例高达约87.39%;但不同区域的水质差异较大,其中城区的水质较差,超标因子主要为Al、Mn、Pb、Fe、Hg;非城区的水质较好,超标因子主要为三氮。研究成果可以为工业型城市岩溶地下水污染防治提供科学依据。

     

  • 图  1  研究区取样点分布图

    Figure  1.  Distribution map of sampling points in the study area

    图  2  岩溶地下水Piper三线图

    Figure  2.  Piper diagram of the karst groundwater

    图  3  研究区岩溶地下水Gibbs 图

    Figure  3.  Gibbs diagram of the karst groundwater in study area

    图  4  Ca2++ Mg2+与HCO3+SO42−关系

    Figure  4.  Relationships between Ca2++ Mg2+ and HCO3+SO42−

    图  5  Na+与Cl关系

    Figure  5.  Relationships between Na+ and Cl

    图  6  HCO3与SO42−+ Cl关系

    Figure  6.  Relationships between HCO3 and SO42−+ Cl

    图  7  Ca2+-SO42−与HCO3关系

    Figure  7.  Relationships between Ca2+-SO42− and HCO3

    表  1  研究区地下水水化学参数统计

    Table  1.   Test data of groundwater hydrochemical indexes in the study area

    项目总体城区非城区
    最小值最大值平均值Cv最小值最大值平均值Cv最小值最大值平均值Cv
    总硬度 94.43 400.16 251.09 4.47 135.17 389.10 287.93 4.84 94.43 400.16 238.12 4.85
    TDS 116.38 542.00 285.35 3.80 150.69 542.00 348.67 3.85 116.38 440.94 263.04 4.89
    pH 6.30 8.56 7.41 21.15 6.87 8.56 7.48 23.00 6.30 8.17 7.38 20.69
    Ca2+ 28.87 114.08 75.95 4.03 30.57 103.32 74.80 3.98 28.87 114.08 76.36 4.02
    Mg2+ 0.85 39.88 14.91 1.45 10.01 39.88 24.55 2.98 0.85 36.10 11.52 1.33
    K+ 0.03 7.61 1.13 1.03 0.35 4.18 1.73 1.61 0.03 7.61 0.93 0.89
    Na+ 0.34 61.09 4.51 0.62 0.75 61.09 11.26 1.01 0.34 20.79 2.13 0.79
    Cl 1.14 38.15 9.18 1.11 2.62 38.15 18.07 1.74 1.14 22.32 6.05 1.42
    SO42− 4.38 221.22 23.44 0.75 6.50 221.22 40.17 0.86 4.38 159.10 17.55 0.83
    HCO3 91.24 432.58 259.87 4.44 150.18 432.58 283.91 4.13 91.24 356.67 251.41 4.81
    I 0.00 0.56 0.02 0.29 0.00 0.56 0.07 0.51 0.00 0.02 0.00 1.44
    F 0.00 0.29 0.08 1.55 0.02 0.29 0.06 1.18 0.00 0.23 0.08 1.74
    三氮 0.00 73.17 5.62 0.57 0.00 73.17 7.86 0.75 0.00 64.16 4.93 0.77
    重金属 0.00 450.00×10−3 7.79×10−3 0.34 0.00 250.00×10−3 11.16×10−3 0.48 0.00 450.00×10−3 6.65×10−3 0.34
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  研究区矿物饱和指数计算结果

    Table  2.   Calculation results of mineral saturation indexex in the study area

    矿物SI值
    最小值最大值平均值
    方解石0.141.280.76
    白云石−0.322.461.40
    石膏−2.31−0.38−1.21
    盐岩−9.69−5.85−8.03
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  岩溶地下水因子载荷矩阵

    Table  3.   Factor load matrix of karst groundwater

    项目F1F2F3F4
    总硬度0.9720.0400.1500.141
    TDS0.8680.1670.4230.192
    pH0.274−0.216−0.0160.749
    Ca2+0.8810.220−0.068−0.155
    Mg2+0.706−0.2250.3340.446
    K+0.0750.1630.7240.241
    Na+0.2610.3210.6720.357
    Cl0.4200.0930.6360.438
    SO42−0.1580.3340.849−0.119
    HCO30.958−0.130−0.1370.133
    NO30.2740.2420.0810.680
    F−0.0110.731−0.042−0.187
    Mn−0.1310.1380.5070.213
    Zn0.0160.6930.2930.250
    Hg−0.0930.648−0.325−0.236
    As−0.0910.6130.045−0.055
    Pb0.0950.7550.3020.013
    Cd0.0820.6970.113−0.058
    特征值4.5593.6382.6211.554
    贡献率/%31.5225.1518.1210.74
    累计贡献率/%31.5274.7949.6485.53
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  研究区岩溶地下水水质评价结果

    Table  4.   Evaluation results of karst groundwater quality in the study area

    区域水质评价等级数量比例/%
    城区Ⅰ-Ⅲ类2064.52
    Ⅳ-Ⅴ类1135.48
    非城区Ⅰ-Ⅲ类8495.45
    Ⅳ-Ⅴ类44.55
    合计Ⅰ-Ⅲ类10487.39
    Ⅳ-Ⅴ类1512.61
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-03-20
  • 录用日期:  2022-03-20
  • 刊出日期:  2022-08-31

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