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重庆中梁山岩溶地面塌陷特征及形成机理

周正 李大华 廖云平 林军志 张烨 陈洪凯 祁永爱 王贺

周 正,李大华,祁永爱,等.重庆中梁山岩溶地面塌陷特征及形成机理[J].中国岩溶,2022,41(1):67-78. doi: 10.11932/karst20220103
引用本文: 周 正,李大华,祁永爱,等.重庆中梁山岩溶地面塌陷特征及形成机理[J].中国岩溶,2022,41(1):67-78. doi: 10.11932/karst20220103
ZHOU Zheng,LI Dahua,LIAO Yunping,et al.Characteristics and formation mechanism of karst ground collapse in Zhongliangshan area, Chongqing[J].Carsologica Sinica,2022,41(01):67-78. doi: 10.11932/karst20220103
Citation: ZHOU Zheng,LI Dahua,LIAO Yunping,et al.Characteristics and formation mechanism of karst ground collapse in Zhongliangshan area, Chongqing[J].Carsologica Sinica,2022,41(01):67-78. doi: 10.11932/karst20220103

重庆中梁山岩溶地面塌陷特征及形成机理

doi: 10.11932/karst20220103
基金项目: 

重庆市教委资助项目 KJQN202000748

重庆市规划和自然资源局科研项目 KJ-2020007

详细信息
    作者简介:

    周正(1981-),男,博士,主要从事碳酸盐岩油气储层地质、地质灾害和地质环境修复研究。E-mail:zhouzheng8951@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P642.25

Characteristics and formation mechanism of karst ground collapse in Zhongliangshan area, Chongqing

Funds: 

 KJQN202000748

 KJ-2020007

  • 摘要: 通过详细调查重庆中梁山地区的岩溶地面塌陷灾害情况,分析出该区地面塌陷特征及形成机理。结果表明:岩溶地面塌陷主要分布在嘉陵江组中的地势低洼处、断层和溶槽处,多发生在降雨量大和地下水水位陡降时期,是自然因素和人类活动共同作用下的结果,数量较多,以土洞型为主;其致塌的力学机制以真空吸蚀作用和潜蚀作用为主,多种作用为辅;在具备岩溶塌陷发生的地质条件下,隧道建设过程中的强排水、降雨和村级公路修建与运营过程中会诱发岩溶地面塌陷的发生。根据岩溶地面塌陷的致塌力学机制和诱发因素,提出预防降雨形成的地表水过度聚集,隧道建设避免地下水陡降,村级公路和隧道选址避开岩溶发育区域等措施,以防止岩溶地面塌陷发生。

     

  • 图  1  研究区位地理位置与构造位置图(据张海坦等[3]修改)

    Figure  1.  Location of the study area (Modified according to ZHANG Haitan et al [3])

    图  2  中梁山地区地质构造、隧道分布和岩溶地面塌陷位置示意图(据曹聪等[1]修改)

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of geological structure, tunnel distribution and karst ground collapse location in Zhongliangshan area (Modified according to CAO Cong et al [1])

    图  3  重庆中梁山地区地面塌陷的形状

    Figure  3.  Shape of ground collapse in Zhongliangshan area, Chongqing

    图  4  中梁山地面塌陷历年数量统计图(据曹聪等[1]

    Figure  4.  Statistics of the collapse number of Zhongliangshan area over the years (According to CAO Cong et al [1])

    图  5  景家院子塌陷群和大烂池塌陷群地面塌陷分布与溶槽的位置关系

    Figure  5.  Relationship between ground collapse distribution and crack position of Jingjiayuanzi collapse group and Dalanchi collapse group

    图  6  凌云水库塌陷群的覆盖层结构特征(据曹聪等[1]

    Figure  6.  Structural characteristics of overburden of collapse group in Lingyun reservoir (According to CAO Cong et al [1])

    图  7  中梁山地区降雨与地面塌陷对比图(据曹聪等[1]

    Figure  7.  Comparison of rainfall and ground collapse in Zhongliangshan area (According to CAO Cong et al [1])

    图  8  地势低洼处分布的岩溶塌陷与岩溶湖(据曹聪等[1]

    Figure  8.  Karst collapse and karst lake distributed in low-lying areas(According to CAO Cong et al [1])

    图  9  中梁山地区潜蚀作用产生的地面塌陷的演化过程示意图(据张海坦等[3]修改)

    Figure  9.  Schematic diagram of evolution of ground collapse caused by potential erosion in Zhongliangshan area (Modified according to ZHANG Haitan et al [3])

    图  10  歇马隧道与大烂池水库位置关系示意图(据曹聪等[1]修改)

    Figure  10.  Location relationship between Xiema tunnel and Dalanchi reservoir (Modified according to CAO Cong et al [1])

    图  11  因地面塌陷导致大烂池水库中的水被漏干(据曹聪等[1]修改)

    Figure  11.  Water drainage in Dalanchi reservoir due to ground collapse (Modified according to CAO Cong et al [1])

    图  12  中梁山地区真空吸蚀作用引发地面塌陷的演化过程示意图(据陈洪凯等[2]修改)

    Figure  12.  Schematic diagram of evolution of ground collapse caused by vacuum suction in Zhongliangshan area (Modified according to CHEN Hongkai et al [2])

    图  13  中梁山隧道与余家湾水库塌陷群的位置关系图(据陈洪凯等[2]修改)

    Figure  13.  Location relationship of collapse group between Zhongliangshan tunnel and Yujiawan reservoir (Modified according to CHEN Hongkai et al [2])

    图  14  中梁村降雨增荷与地表水冲蚀作用诱发的岩溶塌陷(塌陷壁发育有地表水冲蚀形成的冲蚀缝)

    Figure  14.  Karst collapse induced by rainfall load increase and surface water erosion in Zhongliang village(erosion cracks formed by surface water erosion is developed on the collapse wall)

    图  15  中梁村因荷载与振动作用诱发的岩溶地面塌陷

    Figure  15.  Karst ground collapse induced by load and vibration in Zhongliang village

    表  1  重庆中梁山地区岩溶地面塌陷与地层和岩性关系表

    Table  1.   Relationship between karst ground collapse and strata and lithology in Zhongliangshan area,Chongqing

    地层 岩性特征 地面塌陷数/处 占比/%
    T1 j 中-厚层状灰岩并含有少量的白云岩 303 92.7
    T1 f 3 泥岩、微晶灰岩 8 2.4
    T2 l 以薄—中厚层白云岩、泥质白云岩为主 16 4.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  地面塌陷与土层厚度分布情况

    Table  2.   Ground collapse and distribution of soil layer thickness

    土层厚度/m <3 3~5 5~8 8> 合计
    处数 18 146 135 28 327
    百分比/% 5.5 44.6 41.3 8.6 100
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  中梁山地区岩溶塌陷不同力学机制所占比例

    Table  3.   Proportion of different mechanical mechanisms of karst collapse in Zhongliangshan area

    所属力学成因机制 岩溶塌陷数量/个 百分比/%
    潜蚀作用 166 50.8
    真空吸蚀作用 126 38.5
    降雨增荷与地表水冲蚀作用 33 10.1
    荷载与振动作用 2 0.6
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-12
  • 刊出日期:  2022-02-25

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