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泰国岩溶地质概述

韦延兰 李文莉 杨象鹏 周立新

韦延兰,李文莉,杨象鹏,等.泰国岩溶地质概述[J].中国岩溶,2021,40(6):1077-1091. doi: 10.11932/karst20210620
引用本文: 韦延兰,李文莉,杨象鹏,等.泰国岩溶地质概述[J].中国岩溶,2021,40(6):1077-1091. doi: 10.11932/karst20210620
WEI Yanlan,LI Wenli,YANG Xiangpeng,et al.Overview on karst geological of Thailand[J].Carsologica Sinica,2021,40(06):1077-1091. doi: 10.11932/karst20210620
Citation: WEI Yanlan,LI Wenli,YANG Xiangpeng,et al.Overview on karst geological of Thailand[J].Carsologica Sinica,2021,40(06):1077-1091. doi: 10.11932/karst20210620

泰国岩溶地质概述

doi: 10.11932/karst20210620
基金项目: 

中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所基本科研业务费 2002372017001

中国地质调查局地质调查项目 DD20160111, 202021000000180710

详细信息
    作者简介:

    韦延兰(1987-),女,助理研究员,研究方向:岩溶地质。E-mail: weiyanlan@mail.cgs.gov.cn

    通讯作者:

    李文莉(1987-),男,助理研究员,研究方向:岩溶地质。E-mail:liwenli@mail.cgs.gov.cn

  • 中图分类号: P642.25

Overview on karst geological of Thailand

Funds: 

 2002372017001

 DD20160111, 202021000000180710

  • 摘要: 泰国岩溶分布面积约占其国土面积的20%,发育典型的热带岩溶地貌,是热带岩溶的典范。文章通过系统收集分析泰国的地质、水文地质、地貌、洞穴等信息资料,重点研究泰国岩溶作用的地质、水文气候背景,概括泰国主要发育的岩溶地貌类型,总结出泰国岩溶分布规律、岩溶区的资源现状及面临的生态环境问题,为建立“全球岩溶信息平台”提供基础支撑。

     

  • 图  1  泰国地质简图(a),构造图(b)(Geology of Thailand, 2014)

    Figure  1.  Geological sketch map (a) and Structure map (b) of Thailand (Geology of Thailand, 2014)

    图  2  泰国岩溶分布图

    Figure  2.  Karst areas of Thailand

    图  3  奥陶系石灰岩中NW-SE向褶皱 (a)和二叠系石灰岩中N-S向等斜褶皱(b)(Geology of Thailand, 2014)

    Figure  3.  NW-SE fold in Ordovician limestone strata (a) and N-S isoclinal fold in Permian limestone strata (b) (Geology of Thailand, 2014)

    图  4  Tham Phra Wang Daeng洞穴(据Martin Ellis)

    Figure  4.  Tham Phra Wang Daeng cave (Cited from Martin Ellis)

    图  5  Tham Pha Phueng洞穴(据Martin Ellis)

    Figure  5.  Vertical section map of Tham Pha Phueng (Cited from Martin Ellis)

    表  1  泰国二叠系石灰岩地层

    Table  1.   Permian limestone strata of Thailand

    地层(组)特征分布地区层厚/m来源文献
    Phra Woh分为三层:175 m碎屑碳酸盐岩、80 m重结晶白云岩和白云质灰岩、100 m块状石灰岩来兴府(Tak) 美索地区(Mae Sot)500[77]
    Pha Huat灰色重结晶石灰岩南邦府(Lampang) Ngao地区600[35]
    Saraburi厚层石灰岩,夹薄层砂岩,沉积于浅海环境北标府(Saraburi)穆克莱克(Muak Lek)地区2 386[35]、[78]
    Phu Phe厚层灰色-深灰色石灰岩,夹燧石层北标府(Saraburi)康赫(Kaeng Khoi)地区伏普山(Phu Phe)593[79]
    KhaoKhwang厚层灰色-深灰色白云质石灰岩,局部重结晶,夹薄层角砾岩、透镜体燧石北标府(Saraburi)Khao Kwang地区,呵叻高原(Khorat)西部边缘490[79]
    Khao Khad白色-灰色石灰岩、白云质石灰岩、泥质灰岩,火山岩体横插该地层呵叻府(Nakhon Ratchasima)的Lopburi Saraburi 和Pak Chong地区1 812[80]、[81]
    NamMahoran纯碳酸盐岩地层,主要由石灰岩、白云岩组成黎府(Loei)东部、廊莫那浦府(Nong Bua Lamphu)西部、猜也贲府(Chaiyaphum)北部500[82]
    Sai Yok块状厚层石灰岩与白云质灰岩互层北碧府(Kanchanaburi)西峪(Sai Yok)南部900[83]
    Thung Nang Ling浅灰色-灰色中厚层石灰岩,富含海百合茎素叻府(Surat Thani )80[65]
    Phanom Wang粗粒石灰岩、白云质灰岩和白云岩素叻府(Surat Thani )Kanchanadit地区80[65]
    Um Luk厚层状、块状石灰岩,燧石透镜体互层素叻府(Surat Thani )Kanchanadit地区200[65]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  泰国主要岩溶区年平均降雨量(mma-1)和湿度(%)

    Table  2.   Annual average rainfall and average relative moisture in karst areas of Thailand

    序号地区降雨量/mma-1湿度/%
    1北部1 230.974
    2东北部1 404.573
    3中部1 275.273
    4东部1 888.876
    5南部东海岸1 736.979
    6南部西海岸2 717.280
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  泰国较长洞穴 (据Martin Ellis)

    Table  3.   Longer caves of Thailand (Cited from Martin Ellis)

    序号洞穴名称省份长度/m
    1Tham Phra Wang Daeng彭世洛府(Phitsanulok)13 844
    2Tham Mae Lana湄宏顺府(Mae Hong Son)12 720
    3Tham Lom-Tham Nam System清迈府(Chiang Mai)12 600
    4Tham Yai Nam Nao碧差汶府(Phetchabun)10 597
    5Tham Luang清莱府(Chiang Rai)10 316
    6Tham Nam Lang湄宏顺府(Mae Hong Son)8 950
    7Tham Takobi来兴府(Tak)7 346
    8Tham Krachaeng也拉府(Yala)5 633
    9Tham Nam Wang Si Thamma Sokarat洛坤府(Nakhon Si Thammarat)5 200
    10Tham Chiang Dao清迈府(Chiang Mai)5 170
    11Tham Pha Phueng楠府(Nan)4 750
    12Tham Pung Hung湄宏顺府(Mae Hong Son)4 566
    13Tham Ban Nam Mut北碧府(Kanchanaburi)4 161
    14Tham Pha Mon湄宏顺府(Mae Hong Son)4 050
    15Tham Khang Khao彭世洛府(Phitsanulok)4 022
    16Tham Le Stegodon董里府(Trang/Satun)3 389
    17Tham Nok Nang En北碧府(Kanchanaburi)3 232
    18Tham Sua/Tham Lom湄宏顺府(Mae Hong Son)3 075
    19Tham Phra Sai Ngam彭世洛府(Phitsanulok)3 026
    20Tham Laong楠府(Nan)2 969
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  泰国较深洞穴(据Martin Ellis)

    Table  4.   Deeper caves of Thailand (Cited from Martin Ellis)

    序号洞穴名称省份垂直深度/m
    1Tham Pha Phueng楠府(Nan)476
    2Tham Pha Daeng清迈府(Chiang Mai)246
    3Tham Sra Kaeo甲米府(Krabi)239
    4Tham Ban Luang清迈府(Chiang Mai)199
    5Tham Song Hong洛坤府(Nakhon Si Thammarat)198
    6Tham Phet攀牙府(Phang Nga)190
    7Tham Sui Tang清迈府(Chiang Mai)189
    8Tham Ngam清迈府(Chiang Mai)179
    9Tham Rai Phin楠府(Nan)178
    10Tham Huai Poen楠府(Nan)175
    11Ma Phong Sui Tung清迈府(Chiang Mai)167
    12Tham Hub Pha Khao清迈府(Chiang Mai)166
    13Tham Pha Phuek湄宏顺府(Mae Hong Song)166
    14Tham Turakit Maiset北碧府(Kanchanaburi)157
    15Mud Cave清迈府(Chiang Mai)150
    16Tham Mae Lana湄宏顺府(Mae Hong Son)150
    17Tham Pakarang/Tham Hoo Yai湄宏顺府(Mae Hong Son)141
    18Tham Nam Long Lu彭世洛府(Phitsanulok)138
    19Tham Nam Tok Nam Poen楠府(Nan)138
    20Tham Phra Wattanaram孔敬府(Khon Kaen)136
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-10-29
  • 刊出日期:  2021-12-25

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