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试论武汉地区构造演化与岩溶发育史
投稿时间:2013-02-26    点此下载全文
引用本文:罗小杰.试论武汉地区构造演化与岩溶发育史[J].中国岩溶,2013,32(2):195-202. LUO Xiao jie.On the history of tectonic evolution and karstification in Wuhan[J].Carsologica Sinica,2013,32(2):195-202.
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罗小杰 长江勘测规划设计研究有限责任公司 
基金项目:武汉地铁集团地铁工程岩溶专题研究项目
中文摘要:为了更全面地揭示岩溶发育特点,运用历史比较法,研究了武汉地区构造演化和岩溶发育史。古生代—中生代早期,武汉及周边地区地壳运动以整体升降为特点,各时代地层之间为平行不整合接触。晚古生代和中生代早期发生的两次大的海进—海退作用分别形成了石炭—二叠系和下三叠统两套碳酸盐岩系,为武汉地区岩溶发育提供了物质条件。中三叠世期末的印支运动产生的强大的NNE—SSW向挤压应力,形成NWW—SEE走向的线状褶皱,控制了碳酸盐岩的平面分布格局。晚三叠世—侏罗纪,武汉以西及北部等地隆起,东部及东南部的梁子湖地区在襄樊—广济等断裂的控制下逐步开始凹陷。这一时期内,地表、地下水总体向东部梁子湖凹陷汇集,控制了武汉地区第一期地下岩溶的发育。白垩—古近纪,武汉及周边地区地壳活动表现为差异性沉降,接受沉积,岩溶作用停止。新近纪—早更新世,武汉以西的潜江凹陷继续发展,而武汉地区则总体隆升。该时期内古地势东高西低,地表、地下水由东向西流动,第二期地下岩溶也自东向西发育。中、晚更新世时期,武汉及周边地区总体下沉,广泛形成厚10~30 m不等的老粘性土层覆盖于前二期岩溶之上。由于相对不透水层的阻隔,这一时期内岩溶作用基本停止发生。全新世时期,地表水的侵蚀作用部分地破坏了老粘土盖层的连续性。由于碳酸盐岩分布于现长江水体以下10~20 m,侵蚀基准面远高于碳酸盐岩的分布高程,地下水活动很弱,岩溶作用很弱或未发生。
中文关键词:构造演化  岩溶作用  岩溶发育史  凹陷  碳酸盐岩条带  侵蚀基准面
 
On the history of tectonic evolution and karstification in Wuhan
Abstract:In order to reveal the karst development characteristics more comprehensively, the history of the tectonic evolution and the karst development in Wuhan is studied by means of history comparison method. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, the crustal movement in Wuhan and the surrounding area are characteristic of integral lifting, and strata in every periods is parallel unconformity contacted with each other. Two sets of the Carboniferous-Permian and Lower Triassic carbonate are formed by the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic marine transgression-regression. It provides materials for karst development in Wuhan. The powerful compression stress of NNE to SSW in direction generated by the Indosinian movement at the end of the middle Triassic creates the linear folds with the trends of NWW to SEE, and controls the plane distribution of carbonate in Wuhan. During the late Triassic to Jurassic, the crust in west and north Wuhan uplifts as well as the Liangzihu in the east and southeast Wuhan began to depress gradually under the influence of Xiangfan-Guangji fault. The surface water and groundwater discharge overall to the Liangzihu depression, which controls the development of the karst groundwater system at the first phase in Wuhan. During the Cretaceous and Paleocene Periods, the crustal activity in Wuhan and the surround area is characteristic of differentiation subsidence, and the karstification stops. During the Neocene-early Pleistocene, the crust depresses continuously in Qianjiang, while uplifts overall in Wuhan. The paleo-topography in the period is high to the east and low to the west, surface water and groundwater flow from east to west, and the second phase of the karst groundwater system develop from east to west. During the middle and late Pleistocene, Wuhan and surrounding areas overall sinking, the old clay with the thickness of 10~30 m forms widely, and the karst groundwater systems of the former two periods are covered. Karstification basically stops due to the relatively impermeable layer barrier. In the Holocene period, the erosion of surface water has destroyed the continuity of the old clay layer. The carbonate is below 10~20 m of the Yangtze River water and the base level of erosion is much higher than that of carbonate, so the groundwater acts very weakly resulting only weak or no karstification.
keywords:tectonic evolution  karstification  karst history  depression  carbonate belt  base level of erosion
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