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济南十大泉群特征、形成模式及水循环差异性浅析
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引用本文:孙斌,邢立亭,彭玉明,李常锁.济南十大泉群特征、形成模式及水循环差异性浅析[J].中国岩溶,2021,40(3):409-419. SUN Bin,XING Liting,PENG Yuming,LI Changsuo.Characteristics, formation models and water cycle differences of ten major spring groups in Jinan City[J].Carsologica Sinica,2021,40(3):409-419.
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孙斌 山东省地质矿产勘查开发局八〇一水文地质工程地质大队(山东省地矿工程勘察院)/山东省地下水环境保护与修复工程技术研究中心 
邢立亭 济南大学资源与环境学院 
彭玉明 山东省地质矿产勘查开发局八〇一水文地质工程地质大队(山东省地矿工程勘察院)/山东省地下水环境保护与修复工程技术研究中心 
李常锁 山东省地质矿产勘查开发局八〇一水文地质工程地质大队(山东省地矿工程勘察院)/山东省地下水环境保护与修复工程技术研究中心 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金“北方岩溶水系统优势径流通道特征研究”(41772257);山东省高校院所创新团队项目“济南岩溶大泉水循环过程及污染防控”(2018GXRC012)
中文摘要:为了全面系统地认识济南十大泉群,文章采用对比分析法揭示十大泉群分布、流量、景观及水质特征,通过水文地质结构精细刻画与泉水排泄条件分析,进一步明确十大泉群成因差异性,归纳泉水形成模式,揭示十大泉群水循环的差异性。结果表明:十大泉群基本特征可大致分为两类,即排泄区6个泉群均为上升泉、南部补给区4个泉群均为下降泉;十大泉群形成模式可划分为五类,即构造凸起—灰岩“天窗”成泉、构造凸起—裂隙连通成泉、浅埋多层砂层与高渗透黏土导通成泉、断裂切割成泉和侵蚀溢流成泉模式;宏观上济南十大泉群水循环受北倾单斜构造控制,其输入条件、输导系统和输出方式差异较小;微观上6个承压型泉群泉水输出方式差异性明显,其灰岩覆盖层类型、厚度、渗透性及灰岩顶板埋深差别较大,导致泉水出流形态、流量及水质不同,形成各自独特的景观。岩溶泉水微观成因的详细研究可为济南十大泉群分类保护提供重要地质依据。
中文关键词:十大泉群  泉水  特征  形成模式  水循环
 
Characteristics, formation models and water cycle differences of ten major spring groups in Jinan City
Abstract:The purpose of this work is to systematically and comprehensively understand the ten major spring groups in Jinan City. By comparison, characteristics of the distribution,flow,landscape and water quality of these spring groups are revealed. Through fine description of hydrogeological structure and analysis of spring discharge conditions,the genetic differences of the spring groups are further clarified,the formation modes of spring water are summarized,and the differences of water cycles are clarified. The results show that the ten spring groups can be roughly divided into two categories,six ascending spring groups in the drainage area and four descending spring groups in the southern supply area. Their formation models can be divided into five types:structural uplift and limestone "sky light",structural uplift and crack connection,shallow multi-layer sand layer and high permeability clay conduction, crack cutting and erosion overflow. Macroscopically,the water circulation of the ten spring groups in Jinan is controlled by the northward inclined monocline structure,in which the input conditions,transport systems and output modes have small differences. On a micro scale,there are obvious differences in the way of spring water output among the six pressure spring groups, of which the type,thickness,permeability of limestone overburden and burial depth of limestone roof vary greatly,resulting in different spring water outflow forms,flow and water quality,forming their own unique landscapes. The detailed study on the micro genesis of karst springs can provide an important geological basis for the classified protection of the ten spring groups in Jinan.
keywords:ten spring groups,spring water,characteristics,formation model,water cycle
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