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地下水多元示踪试验在岩溶隧道水害预测中的应用——以张吉怀高铁兰花隧道为例
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引用本文:常威,谭家华,黄琨,程烯,黄镇,万军伟.地下水多元示踪试验在岩溶隧道水害预测中的应用——以张吉怀高铁兰花隧道为例[J].中国岩溶,2020,(3):400-408. CHANG Wei,TAN Jiahua,HUANG Kun,CHENG Xi,HUANG Zhen,WAN Junwei.Application of groundwater multi-element tracing tests to water hazard prediction of karst tunnels: An example of the Lanhua tunnel on the Zhangjiajie-Jishou-Huaihua high-speed railway[J].Carsologica Sinica,2020,(3):400-408.
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常威 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院武汉 430074 
谭家华 中铁第四勘察设计院集团有限公司武汉 430063 
黄琨 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院武汉 430074 
程烯 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院武汉 430074 
黄镇 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院武汉 430074 
万军伟 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院武汉 430074 
基金项目:张吉怀铁路芙蓉镇地区岩溶水文地质监测专项(CT900905K);宜昌市资源环境承载能力调查评价(DD20190315)
中文摘要:以张家界—吉首—怀化高速铁路兰花隧道为例,在岩溶水文地质调查基础上结合地下水多元示踪技术,查明了兰花隧道隧址区各岩溶地下水系统以及地下暗河管道的空间展布。结果表明:(1)兰花隧道及其附近区域全部为寒武系碳酸盐岩裸露区,以峰丛洼地为主,地表和地下岩溶极为发育;(2)兰花隧道隧址及其附近区域共发育有呆业洞和兰花洞两个独立的地下暗河系统,其中Ⅰ号、Ⅱ号、Ⅲ号三个岩溶水系统属于兰花洞地下暗河系统的子系统;Ⅳ号岩溶水系统属于呆业洞地下暗河系统;(3)Ⅳ号岩溶地下水系统在平面和剖面上都没有与兰花隧道相交,不会对隧道突涌水构成威胁;(4)兰花洞地下暗河系统以中部兰花洞暗河天窗为界分为上游和下游两段,上游段Ⅰ号和Ⅱ号岩溶水系统在平面和剖面上都没有与兰花隧道相交,不会对兰花隧道突涌水构成威胁;下游段Ⅲ号岩溶水系统在平面上与兰花隧道相交(交点里程为DK60+100),可能存在隧道突涌水风险;(5)依据高分辨率降雨-水文动态监测数据,采用降雨入渗系数法预测在极端暴雨情况下兰花隧道揭露Ⅲ号岩溶管道的最大涌水量为7.08×104 m3?d-1。
中文关键词:兰花隧道  多元示踪试验  水文动态监测  涌水量预测
 
Application of groundwater multi-element tracing tests to water hazard prediction of karst tunnels: An example of the Lanhua tunnel on the Zhangjiajie-Jishou-Huaihua high-speed railway
Abstract:Tunnel water inrush is a common geological hazard during the tunnel construction in karst areas. Thus, it is of great significance to clarify the spatial relationship between the tunnel and karst groundwater system, especially the spatial relationship with the underground river course, which is the key to prevention and control of water hazard in the karst tunnel. This paper presents an example on this issue, the Lanhua tunnel on the Zhangjiajie-Jishou-Huaihua high-speed railway. On the basis of karst hydrogeological investigation and rainfall-spring discharge dynamic monitoring, groundwater multi-element tracing tests were conducted at the concentrated recharge points of groundwater in the area. The spatial distribution of underground river courses and its relationship with the Lanhua tunnel were clarified, the location of water damage in the tunnel was determined and the maximum water inflow was predicted, which provides a hydrogeological basis for the prevention and control of the tunnel water hazard. The results show that,(1)The Lanhua tunnel and adjacent areas host exposed Cambrian carbonate rocks, which are characterized by peak clusters and depression landforms, with highly developed surface and underground karst. (2) The concentration curves of four groups of groundwater multi-element tracing tests are all single-peak symmetrical forms, the tracer recovery rate is more than 68%, and the largest groundwater flow rate is 387 m·h-1, indicating that the pipeline development in the tunnel site area is unobstructed. (3) There are two independent underground river systems, namely the Lanhua cave system and the Daiye cave system. The three karst water sub-underground river systems of No.1, 2 and 3 belong to the Lanhua cave system, while the No.4 karst water sub-underground river system belongs to the Daiye cave system. (4) The No.4 karst groundwater system will not pose a threat of tunnel inrush water, because it does not intersect with the Lanhua tunnel in plane and section. (5) The Lanhua cave underground water system can be divided into two sections, the upstream section and downstream section, with the karst window in the middle of the Lanhua underground river as the boundary. The No.1 and 2 karst water systems belong to the upstream section, and the No.3 karst water system belongs to the downstream section. The upstream section of the Lanhua cave system does not intersect with the Lanhua tunnel in plane and section, and it will not pose a threat to the inrush water of the Lanhua tunnel.The No.3 karst water system intersects with the tunnel in plane (the intersection mileage is DK60 + 100), which may create a risk of water inrush in the tunnel. (6) Based on the high resolution rainfall-hydrological dynamic monitoring data, the rainfall infiltration coefficient method is used to predict that the maximum water inflow of No.3 karst water system pipeline of the tunnel is 70,800 m3·d-1under extremely heavy rainstorm conditions.
keywords:Lanhua tunnel, groundwater multi-element tracing tests, high resolution hydrological dynamic monitoring, prediction of karst tunnel inrush water
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