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中国北方岩溶地下水污染分析
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引用本文:高旭波,王万洲,侯保俊,高列波,张建友,张松涛,李成城,姜春芳.中国北方岩溶地下水污染分析[J].中国岩溶,2020,(3):287-298. GAO Xubo,WANG Wanzhou,HOU Baojun,GAO Liebo,ZHANG Jianyou,ZHANG Songtao,LI Chengcheng,JIANG Chunfang.Analysis of karst groundwater pollution in northern China[J].Carsologica Sinica,2020,(3):287-298.
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高旭波 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院武汉 430074/自然资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所广西 桂林 541004 
王万洲 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院武汉 430074 
侯保俊 山西省水资源管理中心太原 030001 
高列波 山西省娘子关泉域管理处山西 阳泉 045000 
张建友 山西省水资源管理中心太原 030001 
张松涛 山西省水资源管理中心太原 030001 
李成城 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院武汉 430074 
姜春芳 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院武汉 430074 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41877204,41902265,41521001);广西岩溶动力学重大科技创新基地开放课题资助(KDL&Guangxi202001);中国博士后科学基金(2018M642944)
中文摘要:近年来,受气候变化和强烈人类活动的影响,环境物质及能量多频次、大范围的输入,极大程度上改变着岩溶水系统的水环境质量,岩溶水生态环境遭受不同程度的威胁和破坏,岩溶水水质日趋恶化。本文归纳分析了我国北方岩溶水系统水质特征、污染现状、污染来源及污染途径。我国北方岩溶水水质类型中硫酸盐型水和氯化物型水的分布逐渐增加,主要污染组分为总硬度、SO42-、F-、NO3-和TDS等。其中硫酸盐和硝酸盐污染强度和范围最大,呈现出显著的人类活动影响特征。依据我国北方岩溶系统结构及水力学特征,将岩溶水污染途径概括为:①连续入渗型——主要包括岩溶区地表水(河流、水库等)渗漏污染,城镇污水渠或排污管道破损引起的污水渗漏污染;②越流型污染——污染孔/裂隙水(含矿坑水/老窑积水等)越流污染岩溶水;③间歇入渗型——固废淋溶入渗和污水灌溉渗漏污染等。据此提出了推进岩溶水水资源保护和污染防治的合理化建议。
中文关键词:岩溶水系统  北方岩溶  水质特征  岩溶水污染  污染途径
 
Analysis of karst groundwater pollution in northern China
Abstract:In recent years, due to the impact of the climate change and human activities, frequent and large-scale input of environmental substances and energy has greatly changed the water environment quality of karst water systems. Consequently the karst water ecological environment has been threatened and destroyed to varying degrees, and the quality of karst water has been deteriorating. This article summarizes and analyzes the water quality characteristics, pollution status, pollution sources, and pollution pathways of karst water systems in northern China. The results show that the distribution of sulphate-type water and chlorohydrate-type water in karst water quality types in northern China has gradually increased. The main pollution components are total hardness, SO42-, F-, NO3- and TDS. Among them, sulfate and nitrate have the largest pollution intensity and range, indicating significant characteristics of the impact of human activities. Based on the structure and hydraulic characteristics of karst systems in northern China, the karst water pollution pathways are summarized as follows, (1) Continuous infiltration type-it mainly includes leakage pollution of surface water (river, reservoir, etc.) in karst areas, and sewage leakage pollution caused by the damage of urban sewage channels or sewage pipelines. (2) Overflow pollution type-polluted pore / fissure water (including pit water / goaf water, etc.) overflows polluted karst water. And (3) intermittent infiltration type-solid waste leaching seepage and sewage irrigation leakage pollution. Based on the present situation, this paper puts forward reasonable suggestions for promoting the protection of karst water resources and pollution prevention and control.
keywords:karst water system,northern karst,water quality characteristics,karst water pollution,pollution pathways
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