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喀斯特洞穴空间分布与河网密度关系研究——以贵州省为例
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引用本文:黄亮,赵卫权,吕思思,杨家芳,苏维词.喀斯特洞穴空间分布与河网密度关系研究——以贵州省为例[J].中国岩溶,2020,(1):127-136. HUANG Liang,ZHAO Weiquan,LYU Sisi,YANG Jiafang,SU Weici.Study on the relationship between spatial distribution of karst caves and drainage density: An example of Guizhou Province[J].Carsologica Sinica,2020,(1):127-136.
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黄亮 贵州省山地资源研究所贵阳 550000 
赵卫权 贵州省山地资源研究所贵阳 550000 
吕思思 贵州省山地资源研究所贵阳 550000 
杨家芳 贵州省山地资源研究所贵阳 550000 
苏维词 贵州省山地资源研究所贵阳 550000/重庆师范大学重庆 401331 
基金项目:喀斯特高原石漠化综合治理生态产业技术与示范项目(2016YFC0502606);贵州省科技计划课题(黔科合G[2014]4004);喀斯特山地旅游资源开发利用创新人才团队(黔科院人才[2019]08号)
中文摘要:通过叠加分析探究贵州省喀斯特洞穴位置与河网密度的空间关系,从岩性、构造、气候、地形方面解释两者关系的成因。针对洞穴点位河网密度的统计显示:洞穴点集中分布在河网密度中及偏小的区域,正态QQ图显示洞穴点河网密度大体呈正态分布。分析岩性、构造、气候和坡度等影响因素的结果显示:洞穴主要发育在碳酸盐岩区域,并在纯碳酸盐岩、碳酸盐岩夹非碳酸盐岩、非碳酸盐岩分区上表现出负相关性;断层、褶皱中心缓冲区域洞穴最多,并随距离增大洞穴数量减少;温润气候条件为洞穴及河网发育提供了充足水源,溶蚀强度加大,表现在洞穴密度随降雨量和气温的增长而增加;地形条件限制了水力路径和洞穴发育。多因素促使贵州省发育了成熟的地表、地下两套水循环系统,地表水促进溶洞发育,洞穴反过来限制地表径流发育,两者相互影响,使得洞穴与河网密度呈现集中分布的趋势。
中文关键词:喀斯特洞穴  河网密度  岩性  构造  气候  地形
 
Study on the relationship between spatial distribution of karst caves and drainage density: An example of Guizhou Province
Abstract:Guizhou Province is located in the hinterland of southwest China, an important part of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, with high mountains and deep gorges. It has subtropical humid monsoon climate with large rainfall, where carbonate strata and karst are widely distributed, and karst process is generally developed, resulting in rapid conversion of surface water into groundwater. Here strong dissolution and mechanical abrasion have shaped unique and magnificent karst landforms, such as peak clusters, peak forests, depressions, sinkholes, funnels, and underground rivers. This paper analyzes the relationship between the spatial distribution of caves and the density of river networks based on data of 4,789 caves and an 1∶200,000 hydrogeological map of Guizhou Province, and explains the genesis of such relationship from the perspective of lithology, structure, climate and topography. The results show that the karst caves in Guizhou Province are concentrated in the areas with low and medium river network density, exhibiting a patchy spatial pattern. The normal QQ map largely shows a normal distribution, indicating that the concentration of river network density at cave points is the result of mutual restriction of many factors. The cave points and river network density have a negative correlation in pure carbonate rock, carbonate rock interspersed with non-carbonate rock and non-carbonate rock areas. In carbonate rock area, the density of caves increases with the increases of temperature and precipitation, while the density of river network shows a trend of increase first and then decrease due to the varied degrees of karst development. The centers of folds and faults are the dominant area of cave development, where the density of the river network is relatively low, and the number of caves decreases with the increases of distance. In the terrain area below slope 25°, the number of caves is the largest, and the maximum river network density appears in the gentle area. With the increase of slope, the overall trend is decreasing. In the terrain range of slopes 25° to 30°, the number of caves tends to decrease. The conditions of lithology, structure, and climate have promoted the development of mature surface and underground water circulation systems in Guizhou. The surface water promotes the development of karst caves, which in turn restricts the development of surface runoff, making the density of cave river networks present a trend of concentrated distribution in low and medium values.
keywords:karst cave, drainage density,lithology,geologic structure,climate,terrain
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