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喀斯特地区石漠化与土壤类型的空间相关分析——以贵州省为例
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引用本文:杨 青,杨广斌,戴 丽,赵青松,罗毓融.喀斯特地区石漠化与土壤类型的空间相关分析——以贵州省为例[J].中国岩溶,2019,(1):80-87. YANG Qing,YANG Guangbin,DAI Li,ZHAO Qingsong,LUO Yurong.Spatial correlation analysis of rocky desertification and soil types in karst area:A case study of Guizhou Province[J].Carsologica Sinica,2019,(1):80-87.
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杨 青 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院,贵阳 550025/贵州省山地资源与环境遥感应用重点实验室,贵阳 550025 
杨广斌 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院,贵阳 550025/贵州省山地资源与环境遥感应用重点实验室,贵阳 550025 
戴 丽 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院,贵阳 550025/贵州省山地资源与环境遥感应用重点实验室,贵阳 550025 
赵青松 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院,贵阳 550025 
罗毓融 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院,贵阳 550025/贵州省山地资源与环境遥感应用重点实验室,贵阳 550025 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41361091);黔科合LH字[2015]7776号;(博)基于大数据下贵阳市传统土壤图更新研究及数据库构建(11904/0517048)黔科合基础([2019]1218,[2019]1222);贵州师范大学资助博士科研项目(GZNUD[2017]8,GZNUD[2017]9)
中文摘要:以贵州省2010年石漠化程度分布与土壤类型分布图为基础,运用地图代数原理,通过计算二者的转移矩阵,从而得出不同石漠化程度下土壤类型的空间分布情况,并探讨研究区石漠化背景下,土壤类型与石漠化的空间分布规律,分析石漠化的发生、分布与土壤类型的相关关系。其结果表明:喀斯特地区石质土的石漠化发生率最高达到46.41%,其次为黄棕壤的43.32%,综合排序为石质土>黄棕壤>山地草甸土>棕壤>红壤>粗骨土>石灰土>黄壤>紫色土>水稻土>潮土;分等级讨论时以中度石漠化为主导,且石质土的中度石漠化发生率最高,达到了21.68%。石漠化程度的空间分布在不同土壤类型中存在着明显差异,并且二者之间有一定联系,土壤本身的性质差异是重要的因素之一。
中文关键词:石漠化  土壤类型  相关分析  贵州省
 
Spatial correlation analysis of rocky desertification and soil types in karst area:A case study of Guizhou Province
Abstract:This paper takes Guizhou Province, a typical representative of karst landforms in southwest China, as the research object. Guizhou Province is located in the southeastern part of southwest China, and the eastern part of Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The landform is dominated by plateau mountains, and its topography is high in the west and low in the east. It is inclined from the central to the north ,east and south, and the structure is distributed in three steps distribution. The average elevation is about 1,100 m, the climate is warm and humid. It belongs to the subtropical humid monsoon climate with an average annual temperature of 14-18 ℃and an annual average precipitation of 1,100-1,300 mm. In this paper, by referring to the study of rocky desertification by relevant scholars, the degree of rocky desertification was divided into 5 grades, namely, non-rocky desertification, mild rocky desertification, moderate rocky desertification, severe rocky desertification and extremely severe rocky desertification. Then, the spatial distribution map of rocky desertification in Guizhou in 2010 was obtained. The soil type map of Guizhou soil chronicle was vectorized in ArcGIS, and finally a digital map of soil type distribution was obtained by thematic mapping. The spatial correlation between karst rocky desertification and soil types in Guizhou Province was quantitatively analyzed by using spatial analysis function, combined with the principle of map algebra, and the transformation matrix, combined with slope, elevation and other information, so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of rocky desertification in different soil types. The incidence rate of rocky desertification was used to analyze its occurrence, and it was concluded that the occurrence rate of rocky desertification was the highest in karst area, reaching 46.41%,followed by yellow brown soil of 43.32%.The comprehensive order was, rocky soil > yellow brown soil > mountain meadow soil > brown soil > red soil > coarse bone soil>lime soil>yellow soil>purple soil>paddy soil> fluvo-aquic soil. In order to further analyze the incidence rate of rocky desertification of each grade, the statistical analysis of the incidence rate of various soil types show that the study area is generally dominated by moderate rocky desertification, and the incidence rate of rocky soil is the highest in terms of extremely severe, severe, moderate and mild rocky desertification. Secondly, the incidence rate of calcareous soil of moderate and mild rocky desertification were more than 10%, the limestone soil accounts for the largest area of soil types in the karst area of the study area. According to the analysis of comprehensive area and incidence rate, when discussing the incidence rate, the incidence rate of rocky soil is the highest.at different levels, and the order is, rocky soil > brown soil > lime soil> yellow brown soil > mountain meadow soil > coarse bone soil> yellow soil> paddy soil> purple soil> red soil > fluvo-aquic soil. The incidence rate of rocky desertification of all soil types, except for yellow soil, purple soil, rice soil and tidal soil, was relatively low, while the incidence rate of other soil types was relatively high, and the rocky soil occupied the dominant position. It is conclusion that,(1) The development and distribution of karst rocky desertification in Guizhou is largely controlled by the lime soil with the parent material being carbonate rock. (2) Soil parent rocks, physical and chemical properties, lithological composition factors and other factors have affected the occurrence of rocky desertification to a certain extent. For coarse bone soil areas, more attention should be paid to the prevention of rocky desertification. For areas with high incidence rates such as the brown soil and yellow brown soil ,more attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of potential rocky desertification area. It is necessary to comprehensively consider that the overall layout of ecological environment governance of rocky desertification.(3) In the future, the protection and control of ecological and environmental problems such as rocky desertification, can be carried out according to different rocky desertification grades and the mutual relations and characteristics between rocky desertification and various natural environment.
keywords:rocky desertification, soil types, spatial correlation analysis, Guizhou Province
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