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岩溶断陷盆地“盆-山”耦合地形影响下的气候特征及其对石漠化生态恢复的影响探讨
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引用本文:王赛男,蒲俊兵,李建鸿,张 陶,霍伟杰,袁道先.岩溶断陷盆地“盆-山”耦合地形影响下的气候特征及其对石漠化生态恢复的影响探讨[J].中国岩溶,2019,(1):50-59. WANG Sainan,PU Junbing,LI Jianhong,ZHANG Tao,HUO Weijie,YUAN Daoxian.Climatic characteristics under the influence of basin-mountain coupled topography and its influence on the ecological restoration of rocky desertification in Mengzi karst graben basin, Southwest China[J].Carsologica Sinica,2019,(1):50-59.
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王赛男 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/自然资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室广西 桂林 541004/重庆市岩溶环境学重点实验室/西南大学地理科学学院重庆 400715 
蒲俊兵 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/自然资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室广西 桂林 541004 
李建鸿 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/自然资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室广西 桂林 541004 
张 陶 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/自然资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室广西 桂林 541004 
霍伟杰 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/自然资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室广西 桂林 541004 
袁道先 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/自然资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室广西 桂林 541004/重庆市岩溶环境学重点实验室/西南大学地理科学学院重庆 400715 
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0502501);国家自然科学基金(41572234);广西自然科学基金项目(2017GXNSFFA198006)
中文摘要:掌握石漠化山区受海拔影响的气候特征的垂直差异,能够对岩溶山地气候及其影响下的水热组合条件有更为科学的认识,对石漠化演变研究和综合治理有重要意义。本文通过在典型石漠化山区(云南蒙自断陷盆地区)沿盆地、坡地到山区设立三个小型气象观测站获取山地垂直剖面的气象数据,从月(季)、日尺度分析石漠化山区“盆-山”耦合地形的气候垂直特征及其对石漠化生态恢复的可能影响,结果表明:(1)观测剖面是当地主导风东南风的背风坡,年降雨量高原面(1 027.4 mm)>盆地(662.6 mm)>坡面(574.4 mm);且 “山谷风”效应显著,白天吹谷风,降雨比例更大。地形起伏使盆地降雨年变异系数达152.36%,远大于坡面(113.81%)与高原面(99.36%),地形放大了垂直方向的“干湿”差异,区域干燥指数:盆地(1.74)>坡面(1.70)>高原面(0.88)。(2)垂直方向水汽差异使高原面年太阳辐射量(5 492 MJ·m-2)略小于盆地(5 817 MJ·m-2)。同时盆地与高原面气温垂直梯度达0.74 ℃·100 m-1,因此在光热条上存在明显的垂直差异。(3)垂直气候特征对石漠化生态恢复的影响具体表现在:①年内降雨集中,结合坡度较陡的地形易加速水土流失;②降雨量少,且集中在日间,强烈的蒸发易加剧土壤水分亏缺,不利于植被恢复。③研究区水分缺乏,因此在植被恢复治理中应选择耐旱的作物,同时要考虑垂直方向的光热条件差异,盆地选择喜光热作物,海拔高的地区选择喜温凉的作物。
中文关键词:“盆-山”耦合地形  垂直气候  干燥指数  石漠化治理  断陷盆地
 
Climatic characteristics under the influence of basin-mountain coupled topography and its influence on the ecological restoration of rocky desertification in Mengzi karst graben basin, Southwest China
Abstract:Clarifying the vertical difference of climate characteristics of karst rocky desertification mountains affected by altitude can help provide a more scientific understanding on the karst mountainous climate and the combined conditions of water and heat, which is of great significance to study on evolution and comprehensive treatment on rocky desertification. In this work, three meteorological observation stations were set up along the basin to the mountainous area in a typical rocky desertification region (Mengzi graben basin area in Yunnan Province) to collect meteorological data in vertical profiles. The vertical climate characteristics and the possible influence on the evolution of rocky desertification were analyzed on monthly and diurnal scale. The results show that: (1) The observation section is the leeward slope for the wind mainly comes from southeast. As a consequence, annual rainfall is the highest on the mountain area (1 027.4 mm), followed by the basin (662.6 mm), and the lowest on the hillside (574.4 mm). The “mountain-valley wind” effect is remarkable, and the valley wind blows during the day, so the rainfall ratio is larger. The topographic fluctuation makes the annual variation coefficient of rainfall in the basin reached 152.36%, which is much larger than the hillside (113.81%) and the mountain (99.36%) and amplified the change of “dry and wet” in the vertical direction. The aridity index shows that the basin is the highest (1.74), the hillside is the second (1.70), and the mountain area is the lowest (0.88). (2) The precipitation difference in the vertical direction makes the annual solar radiation in the mountain area (5 492 MJ·m-2) slightly lower than that of the basin (5 817 MJ·m-2). From basin to the mountain area, the temperature drop rate is of 0.74 per 100 m. There's a big difference in light and heat conditions between the basin and the plateau. (3) The impacts of vertical climate characteristics on ecological restoration of rocky desertification are as follows: concentrated rainfall within the year combining with steep terrain was easy to accelerate soil erosion. Due to less rainfall during the daytime strong evaporation could aggravate the loss of soil moisture and harm the restoration of vegetation. Drought-tolerant crops should be selected in vegetation restoration and treatment because of water shortage in this area. In addition, photothermal crops should be selected in the basin and thermotropic crops should be selected in the mountain area due to the differences in light and heat conditions. In conclusion, selecting species according to local conditions is of great significance to ecological restoration of rocky desertification areas.
keywords:basin-mountain coupled topography, vertical climate difference, aridity index, rocky desertification control, karst graben basin, southwest China
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