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贵州省近40年耕地功能转型评价及演变差异分析
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引用本文:史小祺,李阳兵.贵州省近40年耕地功能转型评价及演变差异分析[J].中国岩溶,2018,37(5):722-732. SHI Xiaoqi,LI Yangbing.Transformation evaluation and differences evolution analysis of cultivated land functional in Guizhou Province in recent 40 years[J].Carsologica Sinica,2018,37(5):722-732.
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史小祺 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院贵阳 550001 
李阳兵 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院贵阳 550001 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金“岩溶山地乡村坝子土地利用多功能性识别及其时空演化与机理研究:以贵州为例”(41661020)
中文摘要:梳理1978年之后贵州省农业政策及农业农户概况,构建耕地功能评价指标体系,并运用熵权法计算指标权重与其功能值,对耕地多功能进行分类和评价,对比全省及各个州市耕地在不同社会经济条件下所承载的功能,分析差异及原因,研究表明:(1)贵州省耕地功能呈下降趋势,功能转型从2006年前后开始,各州市存在一定差异,经济发展较快的地区在2004年前后已提前转型,经济发展较慢的地区在2012年前后转型;(2)耕地功能存在空间分布差异,主要与地区耕地压力和经济发达程度组合状况有关,低耕低压力高GDP(如遵义、六盘水)耕地功能值最高,高耕低压力高GDP(如贵阳市)则次之,高压力低GDP(如安顺等地区)再次之,低压力低GDP(如黔南等地)最低;(3)耕地数量减少,耕地化学品负荷加剧,建议注重耕地生态保护,减少以过度化学品的投入换取粮食产出等不合理做法;从当地实际出发选择适合的农业发展方式,协调粮经作物、种养业发展的关系,推动农业结构优化升级。
中文关键词:耕地多功能评价  城乡收入差距  耕地压力指数
 
Transformation evaluation and differences evolution analysis of cultivated land functional in Guizhou Province in recent 40 years
Abstract:Guizhou Province is located in the southeastern part of southwest China, and the capital city is Guiyang City. Terrain of the province is high in the west and low in the east. There are many plateau karst mountainous areas with large population living on the limited land resources where the quality of the cultivated land is extremely poor and the reserve resources are seriously insufficient. It is of significance to evaluate the function of cultivated lands in the area and to understand the status of the land functional transformation, in order to have a better management of the cultivated lands, and to make rational use of the land resources in a sustainable manner. This paper sorts out the agricultural polices and general farming situations in farmers of Guizhou Province since 1978. We constructed an evaluation index system, and calculated the index weigh and its function value by using entropy weight method ,to classify and evaluate the multi-function of the cultivated lands. This paper also studied the functions of cultivated lands on provincial, autonomous prefecture and local municipal scales, under different social and economic conditions. The research shows that, (1)The function of cultivated land in Guizhou Province showed a downward trend, with major changes occurred in 2000 to 2008 and in 2014 to 2015 respectively , with minor changes in the other years. The functional transformation started around 2006, and there were certain differences among the autonomous prefectures and various cities. The regions with rapid economic development were transformed in advance around 2004, while the regions with slower economic development were transformed in around 2012; (2)There were differences in spatial distribution of cultivated land function , which was mainly related to the combination of regional cultivated land pressure and economic development level. The regions with low tillage and low pressure and high GDP, such as Zunyi and Liupanshui cities, have the highest cultivated land functional value; the regions with high tillage and low pressure and high GDP, such as Guiyang City; the regions with high pressure and low GDP, such as Anshun, or the regions with low pressure and low GDP, such as Qiannan, have the lowest value; (3)As the quantity of cultivated land decreases, the population increases and the chemical load of cultivated land intensifies, it is suggested that we should pay more attention to the ecological protection of cultivated land, through reducing unreasonable practices such as exchanging excessive chemical inputs for food products, improving the basic land productivity of cultivated land, easing the pressure on cultivated land and food security crisis, and promoting sustainable agriculture development; (4) According to local conditions, it is suggested to choose appropriate agricultural development modes that may fit the local conditions, coordinate the relationship between the development of grain crops and planting and breeding industries so as to improve agricultural structures.
keywords:multi-functional evaluation of cultivated land, income gap between urban and rural areas, cultivated land pressure index
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