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黔北遵义地区地热水化学特征及成因

罗伟 杨仕江 彭静 袁余洋 李生红 曾祥建 张信

罗 伟,杨仕江,彭 静,等. 黔北遵义地区地热水化学特征及成因[J]. 中国岩溶,2024,43(1):72-83 doi: 10.11932/karst20240106
引用本文: 罗 伟,杨仕江,彭 静,等. 黔北遵义地区地热水化学特征及成因[J]. 中国岩溶,2024,43(1):72-83 doi: 10.11932/karst20240106
LUO Wei, YANG Shijiang, PENG Jing, YUAN Yuyang, LI Shenghong, ZENG Xiangjian, ZHANG Xin. Hydrochemical characteristics and genesis of geothermal water in the Zunyi area, north Guizhou[J]. CARSOLOGICA SINICA, 2024, 43(1): 72-83. doi: 10.11932/karst20240106
Citation: LUO Wei, YANG Shijiang, PENG Jing, YUAN Yuyang, LI Shenghong, ZENG Xiangjian, ZHANG Xin. Hydrochemical characteristics and genesis of geothermal water in the Zunyi area, north Guizhou[J]. CARSOLOGICA SINICA, 2024, 43(1): 72-83. doi: 10.11932/karst20240106

黔北遵义地区地热水化学特征及成因

doi: 10.11932/karst20240106
基金项目: 贵州省基础研究(自然科学)项目(黔科合基础-ZK[2021]一般204);仁怀市矿产资源总体规划(2021-2025年)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    罗伟(1983-),男,博士,副教授,研究方向为地球化学、水文地质学。 Email: Luowei663840@163.com。

    通讯作者:

    杨仕江(1984-),男,高级工程师,研究方向为地球化学、水文地质学。Email: 363060830@qq.com。

  • 中图分类号: P641.3;P314

Hydrochemical characteristics and genesis of geothermal water in the Zunyi area, north Guizhou

  • 摘要: 黔北遵义地区地热资源丰富,但研究程度低,成因机制不明,制约了区内地热资源的合理开发利用。文章以遵义地区天然温泉和地热井为研究对象,采集了6组地热水样进行水化学组分、氢氧同位素分析,探讨了该地区地热水的成因。结果表明:研究区地热水水化学类型为SO4-Ca·Mg、Cl·SO4-Na·Ca、HCO3-Ca·Mg、HCO3-Na·Ca及HCO3-Ca·Na·Mg型,有益元素主要有Sr、Li、H2SiO3、F。地热水中的Ca2+、Mg2+、${\rm{HCO}}_3^{-}$主要来源于白云石、方解石的溶解;盐津桥和坛厂地热水中的Ca2+,除来自于白云石、方解石的溶解外,可能有富石膏白云岩或膏盐层中石膏溶解产生的Ca2+加入;地热水中${\rm{SO}}_4^{2-}$离子主要来源于石膏的溶解。四川含盐盆地古卤水的注入导致盐津桥地热水富Na+、K+、Cl。地热水的补给来源为大气降水,补给区位于研究区中部的大娄山一带,补给高程为1 310.0~1 391.2 m,补给区年平均气温为4.4~8.3 ℃。利用二氧化硅温标估算的热储温度为53~95 ℃,地热水循环深度为1 372~2 633 m。硅−焓模型估算的地热水冷水混入比例为76%~92%。区内地下水在大娄山区接受大气降水入渗补给,经深循环并受深部热流加热后,沿导水断裂上升至地表,形成天然低温温泉,或在背斜核部断裂带附近经人工钻探形成地热井。

     

  • 图  1  区域大地构造位置图(a:据文献[15]修改)、黔北遵义地区水文地质图(b:据文献[3]修改)及简易水文地质剖面图(c)

    Ⅰ.扬子板块 Ⅱ.江南造山带 Ⅲ.华夏板块 yjq.盐津桥温泉 bj.芭蕉温泉 fx.枫香温泉 tc.坛厂地热井 yc.岩孔地热井 gh.桂花地热井

    Figure  1.  Geotectonic location (a: revised from reference [15]), hydrogeological map (b: revised from reference [3]), and simplified hydrogeological section map (c) of the Zunyi area, north Guizhou

    Ⅰ. Yangzi plate Ⅱ. Jiangnan orogen Ⅲ. Huaxia plate yjq. Yanjinqiao spring bj. Bajiao spring fx. Fengxiang spring tc. Tanchang geothermal well yc. Petrosum geothermal well gh. Guihua geothermal well

    图  2  黔北遵义地区地热水水样Piper图

    Figure  2.  Piper diagram of geothermal water in the Zunyi area, north Guizhou

    图  3  黔北遵义地区地热水Ca2+-Mg2+(a)、Ca2+-${\rm{HCO}}_3^{-}$(b)和Ca2+- ${\rm{SO}}_4^{2-}$ (c)图解

    Figure  3.  Diagrams of Ca2+-Mg2+(a)、Ca2+-${\rm{HCO}}_3^{-}$(b) and Ca2+- SO42- (c) in geothermal water of the Zunyi area, north Guizhou

    图  4  黔北遵义地区地热水δD-δ18O关系图

    Figure  4.  Plot of δD and δ18O of geothermal water in the Zunyi area, north Guizhou

    图  5  黔北遵义地区地热水Na-K-Mg三角图

    Figure  5.  Na-K-Mg triangular diagram of geothermal water in the Zunyi area, north Guizhou

    图  6  黔北遵义地区地热水硅−焓图解

    Figure  6.  Silicon-enthalpy models for geothermal water in the Zunyi area, north Guizhou

    图  7  黔北遵义地区地热水成因模式图

    1.二叠系−三叠系 2.奥陶系−志留系 3.中−上寒武统娄山关组 4.下寒武统金顶山组至牛蹄塘组 5.中震旦统灯影组 6.中震旦统陡山沱组−南沱组 7.灰岩 8.白云岩 9.砂岩 10. 碳质页岩 11.膏盐层 12.热储层 13.盖层 14.正安−桐梓逆断裂 15. 遵义−枫香正断裂 16.温泉 17.地热井 18.大气水渗入补给 19.地热水流向

    Figure  7.  Genesis model of geothermal water in the Zunyi area, north Guizhou

    1. Permian-Triassic system 2. Ordovician-Silurian system 3. Loushanguan Formation of Middle-Upper Cambrian system 4. From Jindingshan Formation to Niutitang Formation of Lower Cambrian 5. Dengying Formation of Middle Sinian 6. Doushantuo Formation-Nantuo Formation of Middle Sinian 7. limestone 8. dolomite 9. sandstone 10. carbonaceous shale 11. gypsum-salt layer 12. thermal reservoir 13. cap rock 14. Zheng'an-Tongzi reverse fault 15. Zunyi-Fengxiangzheng fault 16. spring 17. geothermal well 18. atmospheric water infiltration recharge 19. flow direction of geothermal water

    表  1  黔北遵义地区地热水水化学及同位素测试数据

    Table  1.   Hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of geothermal water in the Zunyi area, north Guizhou

    温泉名称芭蕉温泉盐津桥温泉坛厂地热井岩孔地热井桂花地热井枫香温泉
    水样编号bjyjqtcykghfx
    pH7.637.387.307.837.957.43
    F/mg·L−10.120.671.752.346.820.32
    Cl/mg·L−12.38384.3812.3717.1011.964.12
    ${\rm{NO}}_3^{-}$/mg·L−13.062.872.154.95
    ${\rm{SO}}_4^{2-}$/mg·L−121.13301.601 449.0175.7223.1950.86
    ${\rm{HCO}}_3^{-}$/mg·L−1114.11267.88136.68267.88264.22199.54
    Na+/mg·L−13.84273.0934.0850.0673.374.27
    K+/mg·L−10.8528.579.657.537.961.41
    Mg2+/mg·L−111.705.68103.2922.429.1624.10
    Ca2+/mg·L−124.98118.67467.0449.5528.8752.06
    TDS/mg·L−1187.951 448.882 322.74514.77439.66353.19
    H2SiO3/mg·L−121.9155.2837.6544.9247.0827.81
    Sr/μg·L−182.8112 488.149 120.961 225.691 028.67310.13
    Li/μg·L−10.3966.7044.80130.0085.805.73
    δDV-SMOW/‰−49.97−61.18−61.74−65.34−72.10−50.98
    δ18OV-SMOW/‰−8.24−9.37−9.85−9.94−11.03−8.23
    注:${\rm{CO}}_3^{2-}$低于检测限(5 mg·L−1)未列出,−表示低于检测限。
    Note: ${\rm{CO}}_3^{2-}$ is not listed because it is lower than the detection limit. The symbole "−" means below the detection limit.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  黔北遵义地区地热水补给高程及温度

    Table  2.   Recharge elevation and temperature of geothermal water in the Zunyi area, north Guizhou

    温泉名称出露高程/m补给高程/m补给区温度/ ℃备注
    公式(3)公式(4)
    枫香温泉9251 383.88.77.7
    坛厂地热井8496.85.4井深837 m
    盐津桥温泉5401 391.26.96.1
    桂花地热井9915.03.7井深1 282 m
    芭蕉温泉8901 310.08.97.7
    岩孔地热井9186.35.3井深1 002 m
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  黔北遵义地区地热水中玉髓和石英饱和指数(SI

    Table  3.   Saturation indices of chalcedony and quartz of geothermal water in the Zunyi area, north Guizhou

    温泉名称芭蕉温泉枫香温泉坛厂温泉盐津桥温泉桂花地热井岩孔地热井
    玉髓SI−0.05−0.020.090.190.070.27
    石英SI0.370.370.480.570.430.69
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  黔北遵义地区地热水热储温度估算结果表

    Table  4.   Estimated geothermal reservoir temperature of geothermal water in the Zunyi area, north Guizhou

    温泉名称水样编号水温/ ℃计算热储温度/ ℃估算热储温度/ ℃
    公式(5)公式(6)公式(7)公式(8)
    芭蕉温泉bj2957.0657.1263.3224.8255~60
    枫香温泉fx3666.2965.9971.2134.0165~70
    坛厂地热井tc3878.4777.9681.7846.5346~78
    盐津桥温泉yjq4494.9094.4096.1463.9564~95
    桂花地热井gh4887.8987.3590.0056.4556~88
    岩孔地热井yk4885.8785.3388.2454.3154~86
    注:公式(5):石英温标−无蒸汽分离或混合作用 T(℃)=−42.198+0.28831×SiO2−3.6686×10−4×(SiO2)2+ 3.1665 ×10−7×(SiO2)3+77.034×lg(SiO2);
    公式(6):石英温标−无蒸汽损失(0~250 ℃) T(℃)=1309/[5.19−lg(SiO2)]−273.15;
    公式(7):石英温标−最大蒸汽损失在100 ℃(0~250 ℃) T(℃)=1522/[5.75−lg(SiO2)]−273.15;
    公式(8):玉髓温标−无蒸汽损失(0~250 ℃)T(℃)=1032/[4.69−lg(SiO2)]−273.15。
    公式(5)据文献[33],公式(6)(7)(8)据文献[34],T(℃)为热储温度,SiO2单位为mg·L−1
    Note: Formula (5): quartz temperature scale-steam free separation or migmatization T(℃)=−42.198+0.28831×SiO2−3.6686×10−4×(SiO2)2+3.1665×10−7×(SiO2)3+77.034× lg(SiO2);
    Formula (6): quartz temperature scale-steam free loss (0–250 ℃) T(℃)=1309/[5.19–lg(SiO2)]−273.15;
    Formula (7): quartz temperature scale-maximum steam loss at 100 ℃ (0–250 ℃) T(℃)=1522/[5.75–lg(SiO2)]–273.15;
    Formula (8): Chalcedony temperature scale-steam free loss (0–250 ℃) T(℃)=1032/[4.69−lg(SiO2)]–273.15.
    Formula (5) is based on reference [33], formula (6), formula (7) and formula (8) are based on reference [34]; T(℃) is the reservoir temperature, and the unit of SiO2 is mg·L−1.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-01-01
  • 录用日期:  2023-11-15
  • 修回日期:  2023-11-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-21
  • 刊出日期:  2024-02-01

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