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黄龙五彩池源水区渗漏特征分析和人工降渗保育综合研究

刘馨泽 张清明 唐淑 田长宝 高文皓 周亚萍 陈洪伟 韩梅东 孙东

刘馨泽,张清明,唐 淑,等. 黄龙五彩池源水区渗漏特征分析和人工降渗保育综合研究[J]. 中国岩溶,2024,43(1):33-47 doi: 10.11932/karst20240104
引用本文: 刘馨泽,张清明,唐 淑,等. 黄龙五彩池源水区渗漏特征分析和人工降渗保育综合研究[J]. 中国岩溶,2024,43(1):33-47 doi: 10.11932/karst20240104
LIU Xinze, ZHANG Qingming, TANG Shu, TIAN Changbao, GAO Wenhao, ZHOU Yaping, CHEN Hongwei, HAN Meidong, SUN Dong. Comprehensive study on characteristics of leakage in the source water area and landscape conservation by artificial leakage reduction of Huanglong Wucai pool[J]. CARSOLOGICA SINICA, 2024, 43(1): 33-47. doi: 10.11932/karst20240104
Citation: LIU Xinze, ZHANG Qingming, TANG Shu, TIAN Changbao, GAO Wenhao, ZHOU Yaping, CHEN Hongwei, HAN Meidong, SUN Dong. Comprehensive study on characteristics of leakage in the source water area and landscape conservation by artificial leakage reduction of Huanglong Wucai pool[J]. CARSOLOGICA SINICA, 2024, 43(1): 33-47. doi: 10.11932/karst20240104

黄龙五彩池源水区渗漏特征分析和人工降渗保育综合研究

doi: 10.11932/karst20240104
基金项目: 四川省科技计划资助项目(24NSFSC0529);国家环境保护水土污染协同控制与联合修复重点实验室开放基金(GHBK-2023-01);四川省地质调查研究院科研项目(SDDY-Z2022008,SCIGS-CYBXM-2023004);黄龙国家级地质公园水循环特征及景观保育技术研究(5132202018000229)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘馨泽(1987-),男,高级工程师,硕士,主要从事生态环境修复研究工作。E-mail:cliu_7411@163.com。

    通讯作者:

    孙东(1982-),男,正高级工程师,博士,主要从事水工环地质领域相关科学研究及应用工作。E-mail:67986685@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P931.5

Comprehensive study on characteristics of leakage in the source water area and landscape conservation by artificial leakage reduction of Huanglong Wucai pool

  • 摘要: 黄龙世界自然遗产地核心景观之五彩池,其源水区上游转花池泉群地表溢流后,在灌丛林区中形成较为强烈的渗漏,导致五彩池涵养水量下降,出现一定程度退化。通过野外调查、长期监测、取样测试等手段,查明源水区水体径流渗漏特征及原因,分析人工降渗手段对五彩池钙华景观演化影响。结果表明:(1)五彩池源水区河道发生了极为强烈的入渗,造成五彩池涵养水量下降,平均径流渗漏占比达51%,月动态变化较小,造成渗漏增强的原因主要为高山柳灌丛根劈、冻融等增加钙华有效孔隙度形成强渗透层;(2)源水区强渗漏造成五彩池下游边缘出现失水黑化,后沟地表水替换了彩池群内原有景观水体(水体置换)引发“灰化”现象;(3)通过人工保育降低源水区强渗漏,五彩池内涵养水量出现明显增加,北边缘彩池群黑化消失,东侧灰化现象减弱,五彩池钙华水域景观范围扩大16.3%,径流渗漏量比前期减少34%,主要景观涵养期内,进入五彩池的涵养水量占比由保育前的49%增加至83%,月平均涵养水量由4 892 m3·d−1增加至8 674 m3·d−1,涵养水量增加77%;(4)降低源水区渗漏,增加下游彩池群涵养水量,对钙华水域景观范围扩大、恢复起到了明显的促进作用,为黄龙世界自然遗产地核心价值的保护提供了重要的依据。

     

  • 图  1  研究区位置暨监测站分布图

    Figure  1.  Location of the study area and distribution of monitoring stations

    图  2  转花池总流量动态(2019年4月—11月)

    Figure  2.  Dynamics of the total flow of Zhuanhua pond (April–November, 2019)

    图  3  转花池总流量和五彩池进池流量变化(2019年7月—11月)

    Figure  3.  Changes of the total flow in Zhuanhua pond and the inflow quantity of Wucai pool (July–November, 2019)

    图  4  五彩池水域景观区收缩及次生退化现象(据2019年8月无人机航测影像)

    (蓝色线为现今范围,红色为早期范围 a. 失水黑化区 b. 水体置换灰化区界线附近)

    Figure  4.  Shrinkage and secondary degradation of Wucai pool in the landscape area (based on UAV aerial survey images in August, 2019)

    (blue line: the present range. red line: the range in the early time a. water loss and blackening area b. the podzolization area near the boundary line of water displacement)

    图  5  灌丛充分破坏后的钙华颗分样品SEM图片

    G01. 转花池样品 G02.映月彩池样品 (a. 粒径0.147~0.250 cm b. 粒径0.075~0.147 mm c. 粒径<0.075 mm)

    Figure  5.  SEM images of travertine samples after full destruction of thicket

    G01: sample of Zhuanhua pond G02: sample of Yingyue pool ( a. particle size 0.147–0.250 cm b. particle size 0.075–0.147 mm c. particle size <0.075 mm)

    图  6  水量调控前后五彩池涵养水量变化(2020年)

    Figure  6.  Change of water quantity in Wucai pool before and after water flow regulation (2020)

    图  7  研究区2019—2021年降水分布

    Figure  7.  Precipitation distribution from 2019 to 2021 in the study area

    图  8  五彩池内不同部位主要离子浓度变化特征

    Figure  8.  Variation characteristics of main ion concentrations in different parts of Wucai pool

    图  9  五彩池局部退化景观恢复对照

    a.保育前,2019年8月 b. 保育后,2020年10月

    Figure  9.  Comparison before and after restoration of local degraded landscape in Wucai pool

    a.pre-conservation, August 2019 b. post-conservation, October, 2020

    图  10  五彩池北部黑化彩池恢复对照

    a. 保育前,2019年8月 b. 保育后,2021年8月

    Figure  10.  Comparison of the blackened pool in the north of Wucai pool before and after conservation

    a. before conservation, August, 2019 b. after conservation, August, 2021

    表  1  监测站和监测对象对应关系

    Table  1.   Corresponding relationship between monitoring stations and monitoring objects

    序号监测站编号作用监测泉点堰类型监测站位置
    1A1监测转花池总水量
    (五彩池断面)
    转花池1号泉(S1)矩形堰泉口下游河道
    2A2转花池2号泉(S2)三角堰泉口
    3A3转花池3号和5号泉(S3、S5)矩形堰泉口下游河道
    4A4转花池4号泉(S4)三角堰泉口
    5B监测五彩池进池水量转花池出口,五彩池进口(S9)矩形堰泉水汇流河道出口
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  转花池泉群及林区出口水化学特征表

    Table  2.   Hydrochemical characteristics of Zhuanghuachi spring group and the outlet of forest area

    监测日期监测站pH水温t/
    电导率/
    μs·cm−1
    游离二氧化
    碳/mg·L−1
    [Ca2+]/
    mg·L−1
    [${\rm{HCO}}_3^{-}$]/
    mg·L−1
    PCO2/
    kPa
    SIc
    2019/7/20A16.571 152166.16210857.5120.22−0.09
    A26.47.11 146197.69212808.1523.75−0.20
    A46.47.21 139178.94211826.6624.31−0.19
    B6.96.31 068111.63194789.657.340.24
    2019/9/20A16.66.71 106129.48181748.5313.99−0.10
    A26.56.91 105151.63181748.5317.61−0.19
    A46.66.71 096138.00181748.5313.99−0.10
    B6.96.11 038109.04173692.866.540.15
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  全月平均水量动态(单位m3·d−1

    Table  3.   Dynamics of monthly average water flow (unit: m3·d−1)

    年份月份转花池总水量五彩池进池水量渗漏水量渗漏占比入五彩池占比
    2019年7月10 3334 6315 70355%45%
    8月9 9524 7075 24453%47%
    9月10 7365 1155 62152%48%
    10月9 9655 1144 85149%51%
     11月7 4624 0543 40846%54%
    2020年4月3 9331 5592 37460%40%
     5月5 9122 9392 97350%50%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  灌丛根系完全改造后的钙华颗分布特征

    Table  4.   Distribution characteristics of travertine particles in thicket root system after transformation

    位置类别粒径 /mm重量 /g占比 /%颗粒名称*
    转花池灌木根系完全破坏后的钙华>2142.3236.7
    0.25~2138.0435.6中粗砂
    0.075~0.2582.8821.4细砂
    <0.07524.356.3粉粒
    映月彩池彩池底初成未固结钙华>2158.4734.7
    0.25~2112.1524.6中粗砂
    0.075~0.25155.5934.1细砂
    <0.07530.076.6粉粒
    *:据土的工程分类标准(GB/T 50145-2007)确定。
    *: based on the engineering classification standard of soil (GB/T 50145-2007)。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  钙华松散过程主要水动力参数变化*

    Table  5.   Main hydrodynamic parameters of travertine loosening process

    类型松散颗粒特征渗透系数 /m·d−1有效孔隙度 /%
    钙华砾2~20 mm9.0914.2
    钙华砂0.075~2 mm5.4112.5
    钙华粉粒土<0.075 mm2.8110.6
    正常弱溶蚀钙华胶结1.538.1
    *:数据来源为2019年成都理工大学生态环境学院水力学实验室完成的达西土柱渗流试验。
    *: The data source is derived from the Darcy seepage test of soil column completed by the hydraulic laboratory of College of Ecological Environment, Chengdu University of Technology in 2019.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  五彩池南部入口水质动态(2019年)

    Table  6.   Dynamics of water quality at the southern inlet of Wucai pool (2019)

    日期流量/m3·d−1pH水温t/
    电导率/
    μs·cm−1
    [Ca2+]/
    mg·L−1
    [${\rm{HCO}}_3^{-}$]/
    mg·L−1
    PCO2/
    kPa
    SIc
    2019-7-205 1496.96.31 0681947907.340.24
    2019-8-204 24376.41 0521907185.320.30
    2019-9-205 1136.96.11 0381736936.540.15
    2019-10-105 2926.96.21 0331777086.70.17
    2019-11-104 41475.91 0831967895.830.34
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-05-15
  • 录用日期:  2023-07-31
  • 修回日期:  2023-07-11
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-21
  • 刊出日期:  2024-02-01

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