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百泉泉域岩溶地下水水化学演化特征及成因
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引用本文:王瑞,李潇瀚.百泉泉域岩溶地下水水化学演化特征及成因[J].中国岩溶,2021,40(3):398-408. WANG Rui,LI Xiaohan.Hydrochemical characteristics and genesis of karst groundwater in the Baiquan spring catchment[J].Carsologica Sinica,2021,40(3):398-408.
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王瑞 河北地质大学水资源与环境学院/河北省水资源可持续利用与开发重点实验室/中国地质科学院水文地质环境地质研究所 
李潇瀚 中国地质科学院水文地质环境地质研究所 
基金项目:中国地质调查项目(DD20160238);河北省省级科技计划项目(D2019403193);中国地质科学院基本科研业务费项目(JYYWF20181301);河北地质大学青年科技基金项目(QN202111);河北地质大学博士科研启动基金项目(BQ201610)
中文摘要:百泉泉域岩溶地下水是河北邢台市生产和生活的主要供水水源。近年来受到自然条件变化和人类活动的影响,泉域地下水流场明显改变,水化学场演变机制有待查明。本研究在水文地质调查和样品采集测试的基础上,采用统计学方法(描述性统计、Person相关系数)、饱和指数计算和水化学方法(Piper图、Stiff图、Gibbs图、离子比例系数)对泉域岩溶水化学特征展开了系统分析。结果表明:泉域岩溶水为弱碱性淡水,Ca2+、Mg2+、HCO3-、SO42- 是地下水中的主要离子,主要来源于方解石、白云石和石膏的风化溶解,Na+和Cl-主要来源于少量岩盐的溶解。沿着径流方向方解石相对于地下水由溶解状态转变为平衡状态,而白云石、石膏和岩盐一直处于溶解状态。补给区和北部径流区基本为HCO3-Ca·Mg型水,七里河、沙河附近和南部煤铁矿区岩溶水除HCO3-Ca·Mg型外,还多出现HCO3·SO4-Ca型、CO3·Cl-Ca·Mg型和HCO3·SO4-Ca·Mg型水,煤铁矿区附近岩溶水中SO42- 的升高是受到了高SO42- 矿坑排水的混合影响。蒸发浓缩作用仅在水位埋深浅且地下水流动相对滞缓的排泄区较为明显,排泄点——百泉泉水为HCO3·SO4·Cl-Ca·Mg型。此外,人类工农业活动改变了地下水的径流条件和水质,使局部岩溶水中NO3-、Cl-、Fe、总硬度含量升高甚至超标。
中文关键词:岩溶水  水化学特征  演化规律  形成作用  百泉泉域
 
Hydrochemical characteristics and genesis of karst groundwater in the Baiquan spring catchment
Abstract:Karst groundwater in the Baiquan spring catchment is the main water supply source for industrial and agricultural production and urban and rural life in Xingtai City,Hebei Province. In recent years,influenced by changes of natural conditions and human activities,the groundwater flow field in this spring catchment has changed obviously,while the evolution mechanism of its hydrochemical field remains unclear. To solve this problem,on the basis of hydrogeological surveys and sample collection and testing,this work used statistical methods(descriptive statistics,Person correlation coefficient),saturation index calculation and hydrochemical methods(piper diagram,stiff diagram,Gibbs diagram,coefficients of ion proportion)to study the hydrochemical characteristics of karst groundwater in the spring catchment. The results show that the karst water in this area is weak-alkaline fresh water,in which Ca2+,Mg2+,HCO3- and SO42- are the main ions,mainly resulted from the weathering dissolution of calcite,dolomite and gypsum,and Na+ and Cl- are mainly from the dissolution of halite. Calcite changes from a dissolution state to an equilibrium state along the flow direction,while dolomite,gypsum and halite are always in a dissolution state. Karst groundwater in the recharge area and northern runoff area are basically the HCO3-Ca·Mg type. In addition to HCO3-Ca·Mg type,types of HCO3·SO4-Ca,HCO3·Cl-Ca·Mg and HCO3·SO4-Ca·Mg also occur in the karst groundwater near the Qili river,Sha river and coal-iron mine areas in the south. The increase of SO42- in the karst groundwater near the mine areas is attributed to the mixture of mine drainage with high SO42- content. Evaporation is only obvious in the discharge area with shallow water level and relatively slow groundwater flow. The Baiquan spring in the discharge area is HCO3·SO4·Cl-Ca·Mg type. In addition,industrial and agricultural activities have changed the runoff conditions and water quality of groundwater,resulting in rise of the content of NO3-,Cl-,Fe and total hardness in local karst groundwater or even exceeding the standards .
keywords:karst groundwater,hydrochemical characteristics,evolution law,formation,Baiquan spring catchment
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