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山东省岩溶塌陷分布规律及成因机制
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引用本文:冯亚伟.山东省岩溶塌陷分布规律及成因机制[J].中国岩溶,2021,(2):205-214. FENG Yawei.Distribution and genesis of karst collapse in Shandong Province[J].Carsologica Sinica,2021,(2):205-214.
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冯亚伟 山东省鲁南地质工程勘察院(山东省地勘局第二地质大队)/山东省地矿局岩溶地质重点实验室/中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院 
基金项目:山东省自然资源厅“山东省岩溶发育区地质环境调查”[鲁地环(2018)06号];山东省地矿局“山东省岩溶塌陷危险性区划与防治研究”[鲁地字(2019)34号]
中文摘要:选取山东省岩溶塌陷作为中国北方岩溶塌陷的代表,在对其分布规律进行分析的基础上,总结岩溶塌陷成因机制。研究表明:山东省岩溶塌陷受岩溶发育程度、第四系覆盖层结构厚度、断裂构造及地表水系等多种自然因素制约,分布呈现出规律性;在人为因素方面,岩溶塌陷多发生在地下水位陡升陡降及在基岩顶板波动时期。从力学角度出发,岩溶塌陷成因机制以真空吸蚀作用及潜蚀作用为主,多种作用为辅;从影响因素角度出发,在具备岩溶塌陷基础地质背景的前提下,其成因机制主要包含大气降水诱发成因、过量开采诱发成因、灌溉回渗诱发成因及地表重大工程修建诱发成因四种。
中文关键词:山东  岩溶塌陷  分布规律  诱发因素
 
Distribution and genesis of karst collapse in Shandong Province
Abstract:As a major economic and cultural province in China, Shandong Province has developed rapidly in recent years. Human activities have made a great impact on the geological environment, especially in the karst areas. The main karst geological hazards include karst collapse, groundwater pollution and spring cut-off, among which karst collapse is the most significant. Frequent karst collapse not only restricts the sustainable development of economy and society, but also brings about great hidden danger to the safety of people's life and property. This paper analyzes the distribution and genesis of karst collapse in Shandong, so as to provide a basis for decision-making on targeted prevention and control of such geologic hazard.Karst collapse documented in Shandong Province began in the early 1970s in Shandong Province. Since then, with the development of economy and society and the growth of population, the exploitation amount of karst groundwater mushroomed and human activities increased. According to incomplete statistics, up to now, there have been more than 1,300 karst collapse events, which are mainly distributed in Tai'an, Zaozhuang, Linyi, Jinan, Jining and Jiaodong Peninsula.The karst collapse in Shandong Province is a representative geologic hazard in northern China. This study suggests that constrained by many natural factors, such as karst development, cap rock thickness, fault structure and surface water systems, karst collapse in Shandong Province exhibits certain regularity. Associated with human factors, karst collapse mostly occurs in the period of abrupt rise and fall of groundwater level and fluctuation of bedrock roof. From the perspective of mechanics, the genetic mechanism of karst collapse is dominated by vacuum suction erosion and potential erosion. From the perspective of influence factors and control factors, on the basis of basic control factors, the main inducing factors include atmospheric precipitation, excessive mining, irrigation and infiltration and major surface engineering.
keywords:Shandong, karst collapse, distribution, genetic mechanism
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