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马达加斯加Mahajanga盆地岩溶水文效应
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引用本文:危润初,孙萌,彭向训,袁汉明,郑仰奇.马达加斯加Mahajanga盆地岩溶水文效应[J].中国岩溶,2020,(3):345-351. WEI Runchu,SUN Meng,PENG Xiangxun,YUAN Hanming,ZHENG Yangqi.Hydrological effects of karst in the Mahajanga basin, Madagascar[J].Carsologica Sinica,2020,(3):345-351.
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危润初 长沙理工大学水利工程学院长沙 410004/水沙科学与水灾害防治湖南省重点实验室长沙 410004 
孙萌 长沙理工大学水利工程学院长沙 410004 
彭向训 长沙理工大学水利工程学院长沙 410004 
袁汉明 长沙理工大学水利工程学院长沙 410004 
郑仰奇 长沙理工大学水利工程学院长沙 410004/水沙科学与水灾害防治湖南省重点实验室长沙 410004 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年项目(41602264);湖南省自然科学基金(2018JJ3270);自然资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室开放课题(KDL201706)
中文摘要:本文在对马达加斯加地质演化研究成果分析的基础上,通过野外调查和监测,结合已有水文资料对Mahajanga盆地岩溶的水文效应开展研究。受地质结构、岩性等条件的控制,Mahajanga盆地东部演化形成绵延近300 km的岩溶槽,在西南部则形成面积达12 000 km2的岩溶台地。岩溶槽和岩溶台地的岩溶发育均以水平方向为主,垂直方向发育较浅,岩溶形态则呈现出明显的均等溶蚀特征。盆地东部岩溶槽拦截了大部分来自高原的河流,是马达加斯加最重要的汇流区,同时,特殊的地质结构也演化形成独特的地下“汇流”系统。岩溶槽区内平缓的河床比降、复杂的河流网络、星罗棋布的湖泊和洼地、分布广泛的松散堆积层以及面积广阔的地下岩溶系统,构成了巨大的水循环调节库,对水文过程将产生较大的“滞流”效应。盆地西南部的岩溶台地面积广,规模大,是一个巨大的天然储水“水库”,对地表径流起到重要的调节作用。
中文关键词:Mahajanga盆地  岩溶槽  岩溶台地  水文效应
 
Hydrological effects of karst in the Mahajanga basin, Madagascar
Abstract:It is of great significance to strengthen the overseas hydrological research of water resources for the strategy of China’s opening up policy. From this perspective, this work studies the hydrological effects of karst in the Mahajanga basin, Madagascar. It builds on previous research on geological evolution, hydrogeological data available, field surveys and monitoring data. Under the control of conditions such as lithology and geological structure, the eastern part of the Mahajanga basin has evolved into a karst valley with a length of nearly 300 km,and the southwestern part of the basin has formed a karst platform with an area of 12,000 km2. The development of the karst valley and karst platform is mainly in the horizontal direction, while extending downward to a relatively smaller depth, and the karst form exhibits an obvious characteristic of equal dissolution. The karst valley and platform play important roles in local water cycling, which can be described from 3 aspects: (1) The karst valley intercepts most of the rivers originated from the plateau, controls the directions of the rivers and forms a unique underground confluence system, which makes the valley the most abundant area of water resources and is the most important confluence area in Madagascar. (2) The karst valley, a complex and huge underground karst system, has created a large number of lakes and seasonal waterlogged depressions and broad loose sediments on both sides of the rivers, all of which produced a huge water cycle regulation system in the east margin of the basin, which will have a great retention effect on the hydrological process. (3) The karst platform in the southwest of the basin is a huge natural water storage reservoir with a vast area and large scale, which plays an important role in adjusting the surface runoff ,especially in dry months.
keywords:Mahajanga basin, karst valley, karst platform, hydrological effects
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