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基于高分辨率示踪技术的岩溶隧道涌水来源识别及含水介质研究
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引用本文:谢国文,杨平恒,卢丙清,陈峰,张宇,池彦宾,邓书金.基于高分辨率示踪技术的岩溶隧道涌水来源识别及含水介质研究[J].中国岩溶,2018,37(6):892-899. XIE Guowen,YANG Pingheng,LU Bingqing,CHEN Feng,ZHANG Yu,CHI Yanbin,DENG Shujin.Application of high-resolution tracer technique in identifying the source of water gushing and the structure of aquifer medium in karst tunnel[J].Carsologica Sinica,2018,37(6):892-899.
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谢国文 西南大学地理科学学院/岩溶环境重庆市重点实验室重庆 400715/自然资源部岩溶生态环境重庆南川野外基地重庆 408435 
杨平恒 西南大学地理科学学院/岩溶环境重庆市重点实验室重庆 400715/自然资源部岩溶生态环境重庆南川野外基地重庆 408435/中国科学院页岩气与地质工程重点实验室/中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所北京 100029 
卢丙清 重庆市地下水资源利用与环境保护实验室/重庆地质矿产勘查开发局南江水文地质工程地质队重庆 401121 
陈峰 西南大学地理科学学院/岩溶环境重庆市重点实验室重庆 400715/自然资源部岩溶生态环境重庆南川野外基地重庆 408435 
张宇 西南大学地理科学学院/岩溶环境重庆市重点实验室重庆 400715/自然资源部岩溶生态环境重庆南川野外基地重庆 408435 
池彦宾 重庆市地下水资源利用与环境保护实验室/重庆地质矿产勘查开发局南江水文地质工程地质队重庆 401121 
邓书金 重庆市地下水资源利用与环境保护实验室/重庆地质矿产勘查开发局南江水文地质工程地质队重庆 401121 
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2011BAC09B01);中央高校基本科研业务费专项项目(XDJK2018AB002)
中文摘要:利用高分辨率示踪技术探讨了重庆三泉隧道突水来源,并对含水介质进行了刻画,结果表明:(1)隧道涌水段受长滩地下河影响,而麦阴槽落水洞为长滩地下河的补给来源之一;(2)试验段岩溶含水介质通畅,地下水流速快,为典型紊流态;地下河管道结构不均匀,发育两条过水通道,为主管道并联支管道,无溶潭和地下湖发育;利用Qtracer2软件,计算得到地下河几何参数及水文地质参数:地下管道储水体积为1 148.4 m3,表面积为1.30×106 m2,平均直径为1.37 m,长度为780 m;摩擦系数为0.51,舍伍德数为1 055.1,施密特数为1 140,水力深度为1.08 m,分子扩散边界层厚度为1.3 mm;(3)因试验时间短、试验为小流量期及存在其他地下河出口等条件制约,示踪剂天来宝的回收率较低,上湾洼地与隧道涌水段连通关系有待进一步研究;(4)由于三泉隧道涌水点与地表水具有直接水力联系,且涌水量大,建议引走地表洼地水源、填埋隧道上方麦阴槽落水洞或在隧道下方新建泄水洞排水。
中文关键词:隧道涌水  示踪试验  水源识别  岩溶含水层  重庆三泉隧道
 
Application of high-resolution tracer technique in identifying the source of water gushing and the structure of aquifer medium in karst tunnel
Abstract:The study area is located in the Longyan river basin, a tributary of Wujiang river, and is in Sanquan town, Nanchuan district, Chongqing. The strata of this area comprise the upper Cambrian dolomite. The terrain is dominated by medium mountain and mid-low mountains, with topographic high in the northeast and low in the southwest. Dissolution karst depressions and dolines are well developed in the area, below which is the Changtan underground river basically recharged by the source from Shangwan depression and Maiyincao depression. The Sanquan tunnel is located at 60 m under the Changtan underground river, where water inrush disaster occurred during the rainstorm on 15 and 16 April 2016. This study focuses on the verification of the connection between gushing water and Changtan river, identification of the source of gushing water and the discussion on the properties of the karst aquifer media. A high resolution tracer test using sodium fluorescein and Tinopal CBS-X was applied to the localities between the tunnel water bursting point and Shangwan and Maiyincao depressions . The results show that,(1) The receiving point received the Tinopal CBS-X released at Maiyincao depression , but no sodium fluorescein from Shangwan depression was received. The recovery rate of the Tinopal CBS-X at the left and right caves were 28.7% and 36.6%, respectively;(2) The maximum flow velocity of groundwater is 246.1 m?h-1 , with an average value of 118.5 m?h-1 . Two breakthrough curves (BTCs) presented a double-peaked shape, with the main peak in the front and the second peak in the back;(3) Based on the application of Qtracer2 software, the geometric and hydrogeological parameters such as flow channel volume, flow channel surface area, average diameter, distance of underground river, the friction coefficient, Sherwood number, Schmidt number, hydraulic depth and molecular diffusion boundary layer thickness are 1,148.4 m3 , 1.30×106 m2, 1.37 m, 780 m, 0.51, 1,055.1, 1,140, 1.08 m and 1.3 mm, respectively. From the analytical results, it is realized that there is a hydraulic connection between Maiyincao sinkhole and the tunnel gushing point, affected by Changtan underground river. The low recovery rate of Tinopal CBS-X is perhaps attributed to the presence of other discharge points and the properties of the flow systems. The groundwater flow field is a typical turbulent flow pattern. Two conduits are developed in this karst aquifer, controlled by parallel fissures without underground lakes. The hydraulic connectivity between Shangwan depression and water gushing section needs a further study. The accuracy of the study depend on flow condition, test period, density of monitoring points, and a contrastive test is necessary. Tunnel excavation disturbance and continuous precipitation are the main causes of water inrush to the tunnel, which is a type of karst pipeline inrush disaster. Due to the water inrush point of the Sanquan tunnel has direct hydraulic connection with surface water, and the amount of water gushing is large, it is suggested to drain the water from the depression, fill the Maiyincao sinkhole above the tunnel, or build a drainage ditch at the bottom of the tunnel.
keywords:tunnel water gushing, tracer test, water source identification, karst aquifer, Sanquan tunnel of Chongqing
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