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高寒山地岩溶发育特征——以云南石卡山为例
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引用本文:尚彦军,李 坤,王开洋,金维浚.高寒山地岩溶发育特征——以云南石卡山为例[J].中国岩溶,2018,37(5):639-649. SHANG Yanjun,LI Kun,WANG Kaiyang,JIN Weijun.Characteristics of karst development on the top of the plateaumountain:Taking the ShikaMountain as one example[J].Carsologica Sinica,2018,37(5):639-649.
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作者单位
尚彦军 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所 
李 坤 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所 
王开洋 云南省交通规划设计研究院 
金维浚 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所 
基金项目:国家自然基金资助项目(41372324,41772320)
中文摘要:为了解海拔4 000 m以上高原夷平面灰岩裸露的山体岩溶作用发育情况及表现形式,文章以云南香格里拉石卡山为例,结合高海拔宇宙射线选址,对此问题进行了现场调查和初步研究。结果发现,在海拔4 000 m以上面积约2.4 km 2 高原面场地范围内,石炭系灰岩中发育了118个以上落水洞、陡崖可见6个近水平溶洞。高密度电法探测结果显示,岩溶以低电阻率为特点:地表落水洞在50~60 m深度上连成一体,100~180 m深度低阻区范围更大。研究区地下水系统处于大气降水垂直入渗补给区,上游(西部)灰岩和下游(东部)泥岩阻隔影响到水的径流路径和排泄形式,地表明显积水洼地12处,泉水点10个。地下水埋藏较浅,排泄快。这些岩溶发育特征为该场地规划利用提供了地质依据。
中文关键词:高原面  岩溶  落水洞  石卡山
 
Characteristics of karst development on the top of the plateaumountain:Taking the ShikaMountain as one example
Abstract:What is the situation of karst developed on the bare rock high mountain limestone planation above the elevation of 4,000m ? What are the behaviors of the karst process? This paper takes the Shika Mountain in Shangri-La, Yunnan Province as case study, with the intention of answering these questions through field investigation and analysis of the field findings. It is observed that in the 2.4 km2 survey area above the altitude of 4,000 m, there are more than 118 caverns in the Carboniferous limestone and 6 near horizontal karst caves. The results of high density electrical resistivity (ER) show that the underground karst is usually characterized by the zones with low ER, which indicates surface isolated sink holes and dolines become connected at the depth of 50-60 m, and the connected area became larger at the depth of 100-180 m. In groundwater system, the study area is located in the vertical precipitation recharge area. The upstream limestone and downstream mudstone have an influence on the runoff path and discharge manor of the water. As a result, there are 12 karst depressions and 4 spring points observed on the surface. In addition, the groundwater in the area is shallow, with a fast discharge. These characteristics of karst development provide a geological basis for site planning and utilization on the plateau surface.
keywords:plateau surface, karst, sinkhole, Shika Mountain
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