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香溪河流域岩溶洞穴发育与分布特征
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引用本文:罗利川,梁 杏,周 宏,谢 凯,陈标典.香溪河流域岩溶洞穴发育与分布特征[J].中国岩溶,2018,37(3):450-461. LUO Lichuan,LIANG Xing,ZHOU Hong,XIE Kai,CHEN Biaodian.Development and distribution characteristics of karst caves in the Xiangxi river basin[J].Carsologica Sinica,2018,37(3):450-461.
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作者单位
罗利川 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院 
梁 杏 中国地质大学(武汉)环境学院 
周 宏 中国地质大学(武汉)地质调查研究院 
谢 凯 武汉中地环科水工环科技咨询有限责任公司 
陈标典 湖北省地质环境总站 
基金项目:中国地质调查局项目 (12120113103800,DD20160304);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(CUG170670)
中文摘要:结合1∶5万水文地质调查,对香溪河岩溶流域溶洞特征进行了探究,统计其溶洞的规模、形态、发育地层、发育方向及分布高程,结果表明:该区洞穴规模中等,受岩性的控制,溶洞的发育表现出对碳酸盐岩岩组类型的选择性,其中寒武-奥陶系地层溶洞发育程度最高;溶洞的发育方向多为北北东和北北西向,与区域构造线一致,同时受本区构造运动间歇性抬升的影响,溶洞集中发育于4个高程区;从溶洞发育的构造部位来看,溶洞主要分布在宽缓向斜的东南翼及向斜核部,平面分布表现出分带性;该区溶洞多发育至早期就停止进一步发育,其规模、类型、分布特征等与鄂西南地区溶洞均存在差异。
中文关键词:香溪河流域  岩溶洞穴  发育特征  分布规律
 
Development and distribution characteristics of karst caves in the Xiangxi river basin
Abstract:Xiangxi river, a tributary of the Yangtze River, is situated at Xingshan county, Hubei Province ,South China. The river is 97.3 km long and has a catchment of 3,190 km2. Tectonic uplift and subsequent erosion have produced a steep terrain of middle-low mountains and deep ravines that are characterized by complex karst landforms and great topographic relief. The region is located in the southwestern margin of warm and humid subtropical karst, adjacent to the karst demarcation line between North and South-Qinling, and belongs to the transitional zone of north-south karst in China. There are many types of karst caves in China, and many have been investigated and studied in the areas of north and south China. However, there are few reports about karst caves which are distributed in the transitional zone of north-south karst in China. Besides, from the perspective of the watershed, the summaries of the development and distribution of karst caves are still lacking.Through the 1∶50,000 hydrogeological survey in the Xiangxi river karst basin, we investigated and detected the karst caves in this area, and analyzed the size, shape, orientation and height of karst caves and associated rock formations. The results show that the scale of caves is medium. The development of karst caves shows an obvious selectivity to the type of carbonate rocks, with highest cave occurrence in the Cambrian-Ordovician strata. By trace test, the measurement of fissure and the comparison of surface karst morphology, it is found that the orientation of the karst caves is mostly NNE-and NNW-trending, consistent with the regional tectonic line. Affected by the intermittent uplift of tectonic movement, the karst caves are concentrated in four elevation zones, corresponding to the four periods of karst development in the Three Gorges area, of which the most developed karst caves are in the height range of 800-1,200 m. In relation to tectonic locality, the distribution of karst caves is mainly in the southeast wing and axe of syncline, showing a feature of horizontal zoning. Affected by geo-environmental conditions, development of these carves in the region prematurely ended at their early stages, which is different in terms of cave size, type and extension from those of the southwest of Hubei Province. This is a typical feature of karst caves developed in the geographically transitional zone in China.
keywords:Xiangxi river basin, karst caves, characteristics of development, distribution regularity
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