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白云岩洞穴洞口弱光带的苔藓群落特征——以绥阳水洞为例
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引用本文:郭 云,王智慧,张朝晖.白云岩洞穴洞口弱光带的苔藓群落特征——以绥阳水洞为例[J].中国岩溶,2018,37(3):388-399. GUO Yun,WANG Zhihui,ZHANG Zhaohui.Study on community characteristics of bryophytes in dolomite cave twilight zones: An example of the Shuidong Cave in Suiyang county, Guizhou Province[J].Carsologica Sinica,2018,37(3):388-399.
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郭 云 贵州师范大学 贵州省山地环境信息系统与生态环境保护重点实验室 
王智慧 贵州师范大学生命科学学院 
张朝晖 贵州师范大学 贵州省山地环境信息系统与生态环境保护重点实验室 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31160042)“南方喀斯特山区石漠苔藓植物区系特征及其水土保持意义研究”
中文摘要:白云岩洞穴是喀斯特山区特有的生境之一,其洞口弱光带发育了独特的苔藓植物群落。文章以贵州绥阳县的水洞为例,探讨了白云岩洞穴洞口弱光带的苔藓群落物种组成、类型及生态分布特征。2015年4月到9月对水洞进行三次野外标本采集,共采集60个样方中的苔藓植物,记载了该洞穴典型苔藓群落47个。研究揭示:(1)该洞物种组成丰富,种类由17科34 属55 种组成,是中国已知苔藓物种最丰富的洞穴; (2)生活型单调,仅有四种类型,分别是交织型(47.27%)、矮丛集型(34.55%)、平铺型(9.09%)和高丛集型(9.09%);(3)根据生长基质不同,划分了4种苔藓群落大类型,分别是钙土苔藓群落、白云石生苔藓群落、钙华苔藓群落和水生苔藓群落,该洞钙华沉积不显著,仅有少量比例的钙华苔藓群落;(4)苔藓植物分布在从洞口到洞深37 m范围,随着光照强度从洞口至洞穴深处的变弱,苔藓群落由多物种群落变化为单一物种群落。
中文关键词:白云岩  洞穴  苔藓群落  生活型  光照  生态分布
 
Study on community characteristics of bryophytes in dolomite cave twilight zones: An example of the Shuidong Cave in Suiyang county, Guizhou Province
Abstract:Dolomite caves are one of unique habitats in karst mountainous areas, where some special bryophyte communities live in dolomite cave twilight zones. A study of species composition, ecological types and distribution of bryophyte communities was conducted in the Shuidong Cave at Suiyang county, Guizhou Province, China. From April to September in 2015, sixty bryophyte samples were collected in this cave, and 47 typical bryophyte communities were recorded. Research shows that species composition in this cave is extremely rich. The cave flora is made up of 55 taxa in 34 genera of 17 families, representing the largest species diversity of bryophytes in known in China so far. The life-forms of bryophytes are simple in the cave, only four types, which are Wefts(47.27%), Short turfs (34.55%), Mats (9.09%) and Tall turfs(9.09%). According to the growth substrates, the bryophyte communities could be divided into four ecological types, which are bryophyte communities on calcareous soil, bryophyte communities on the dolomite, bryophyte communities on travertine and aquatic bryophyte communities. Travertine deposition associated with bryophyte communities is weak. From 0 m to 37 m within the cave entrance, with the increasingly weak of light, the distribution of bryophyte communities exhibits regular changes. For example, the number of bryophyte species has a sharp decline from 21 to 1 and species composition of bryophyte communities changes from multi-species communities to single-species communities.
keywords:dolomite, cave, bryophyte community, life-forms, light, ecological distribution
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