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岩溶区矿山污染地下水的水生植物修复初步研究
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引用本文:张连凯,覃小群,黄奇波,刘朋雨,单晓静.岩溶区矿山污染地下水的水生植物修复初步研究[J].中国岩溶,2017,36(5):743-750. ZHANG Liankai,QIN Xiaoqun,HUANG Qibo,LIU Pengyu,SHAN Xiaojing.Aquatic plants bioremediation to groundwater contaminated by mines in karst areas[J].Carsologica Sinica,2017,36(5):743-750.
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张连凯 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/国土资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室/国土资源部岩溶生态与石漠化治理重点实验室 
覃小群 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/国土资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室 
黄奇波 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/国土资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室 
刘朋雨 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/国土资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室 
单晓静 国土资源部岩溶生态与石漠化治理重点实验室/青岛大学环境科学与工程学院 
基金项目:中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20160301);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0406104);国家留学基金资助项目(201608455024)
中文摘要:选取黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata Royle)和水绵(Spirogyra communis,Hassall)作为研究对象,分析其对某铅锌矿尾矿库重金属废水的富集能力,综述重金属在黑藻和水绵体内的富集机制,探讨了利用黑藻和水绵进行岩溶矿山重金属污染水修复的应用前景。结果表明:黑藻和水绵体内的重金属绝对含量较高,并且植株长势良好,生物量大,说明这两种水生植物对重金属有避性或耐性。分析测试发现,在黑藻和水绵体内,重金属的富集系数较高,其中Pb最大,其后依次是As>Co>Mn>Cu>Cd>Zn>Ni>Cr,富集系数最少的是Hg,水绵体内的富集系数要大于黑藻。对比研究发现,这两类藻类体内的重金属含量和富集系数均高于非岩溶区。黑藻对重金属的富集机制主要有3种,即重金属作用下抗氧化酶活性增强、被动吸收和离子交换作用,而水绵特殊的分子生物结构可能是其吸附重金属的重要机制。黑藻和水绵在南方岩溶区广泛分布,利用黑藻和水绵修复重金属污染的岩溶水具有较好前景。
中文关键词:铅锌矿  岩溶地下水  重金属污染  黑藻  水绵
 
Aquatic plants bioremediation to groundwater contaminated by mines in karst areas
Abstract:The karst regions in southwest China is an important producing area of nonferrous metals. Long-term extensive mining and waste residue accumulation have made the local environment seriously polluted by heavy metals. Many heavy metal elements enter the underground through surface runoffs and leaching, polluting groundwater aquifers, and pose a significant impact on the vulnerable karst environment. The leachate from the tailings reservoirs enters the groundwater system through karst pipelines and has a serious impact on the downstream ecological in a lead-zinc mine environment. In order to study the treatment technology of heavy metal pollution in karst groundwater and improve the quality of groundwater of this area, Hydrilla verticillata and Spirogyra communis grown in tailing reservoir leachate were selected as the sorbents of heavy metal. Hydrochemistry and enrichment factor analyses were conducted to examine the adsorption capacity of heavy metals of these two aquatic plants. Meanwhile, their heavy metal adsorption mechanism was explored and the feasibility of using these two aquatic plants to control karst groundwater pollution was discussed. Results show that, (1) The contents of heavy metals in these two aquatic plants lived in the mining area are high and the plants are well growing with large biomasses, suggesting these two kinds of aquatic plants have a certain avoidance or resistance to the heavy metals; (2)The bio concentration factors (BCF) to elements in Hydrilla verticillata are relatively high, with value order as Pb > As > Co > Mn > Cu > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cr > Hg. The BCFs in Spirogyra communis are higher than those in Hydrilla verticillata but their value order is the same as that in Hydrilla verticillata. Although the contents of heavy metals do not reach the critical value of hyper-accumulators, the enrichment coefficients of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni, Mn and As in these two kinds of plants are much larger than 1, consistent with the hyper-accumulator enrichment characteristics, showing a co-enrichment feature; (3) Compared with non-karst areas, the content and BCF of heavy metals in these two aquatic plants in karst areas are much higher. Three main enrichment mechanisms of heavy metals in Hydrilla verticillata are suggested, which are enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activity under the stimulating of heavy metals, passive absorption, and ion exchange effect. For Spirogyra communis, its special molecular structure is important for its heavy metal adsorption. As the Hydrilla verticillata and Spirogyra communis are widely distributed in karst areas of southern China, using these two planes as the heavy metal remediation plants in karst polluted water will have a good prospect.
keywords:lead-zinc mine, karst groundwater, heavy metal pollution, Hydrilla verticillata, Spirogyra communis
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