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城镇化进程下裸露岩溶区地下河水质变迁——以贵阳上寨地下河系统为例
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引用本文:罗 维,杨秀丽,邹胜章,宁黎元.城镇化进程下裸露岩溶区地下河水质变迁——以贵阳上寨地下河系统为例[J].中国岩溶,2017,36(5):704-712. LUO Wei,YANG Xiuli,ZOU Shengzhang,NING Liyuan.Variation of water quality of underground rivers in uncovered karst regions during the process of urbanization[J].Carsologica Sinica,2017,36(5):704-712.
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罗 维 贵州省地质环境监测院 
杨秀丽 贵州省地质环境监测院 
邹胜章 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/国土资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室 
宁黎元 贵州省地质环境监测院 
基金项目:中国地质调查局地质调查项目(1212011121166,1212011121164); 贵州省科技基金计划项目(黔科合基础[2016]1406)
中文摘要:为查明城镇化进程中裸露型地下河系统水质变化特征,以贵阳上寨地下河为例,基于历史水质监测数据,对比研究区城镇化进程,分析总结水质变化情况与成因。结果显示:上寨地下河水质随城镇化进程呈明显阶段性变化,1987年前基本未受影响,1988-1995年仅轻微影响,1996-2014年即城乡结合部期间污染最严重;无机超标组分历年贡献率以锰、氨氮、氟化物和亚硝酸盐最高,来源以养殖、生活、食品加工为主,冶炼、制造次之;有机污染物主要为苯系物和苯并[a]芘,2003年后开始有机污染物检出,2015年首次出现苯并[a]芘超标。从1981年至今研究区经历了从农村-城郊-城镇的发展过程,尤其是城乡结合部期间,区内人口、企业激增,但基础设施建设滞后,社会管理未能跟上,导致废水废渣无序排放,地表水体污染严重,加上裸露岩溶区地下河系统脆弱的防污性能,是地下河污染的主要原因。建议尽快开展区内排污管网建设、加强对生猪养殖场、食品工业园等污染源控制、启动区域地表水体污染的综合修复治理,以遏制上寨地下河的污染现状。
中文关键词:城镇化  裸露岩溶区  地下河  水质变迁;地下水污染;防治措施
 
Variation of water quality of underground rivers in uncovered karst regions during the process of urbanization
Abstract:Underground rivers are the primary form of water resources as well as the most important landscape resources in karst regions in southern China. Their water quality was constantly deteriorated recently by human activities changing. Taking the Shangzhai underground river as an example, this paper addresses this issue based on historical monitoring data. The water quality of this river has experienced stage-wise changes with urbanization, and became the worst in rural-urban conjunctions. The relatively high contribution rates to over standard components are attributed to Mn,NH4+,F- and NO2-. Contaminants come mainly from aquaculture,life,food processing, smelting and manufacturing. Organic contaminants were detected since 2003, and BaP was found over-standard from 2015. The increasing of population and enterprises, the random discharge of waste water and waste residue have led to severe pollution of surface water. The vulnerable antipollution ability of underground river systems in uncovered karst regions are the main reason for underground water deterioration.
keywords:urbanization, uncovered karst regions, underground river, water quality variation, groundwater pollution, prevention and control measures
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