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基于MODFLOW的岩溶管道水流模拟方法探讨与应用
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引用本文:赵良杰,夏日元,杨 杨,邵景力,易连兴,王 喆.基于MODFLOW的岩溶管道水流模拟方法探讨与应用[J].中国岩溶,2017,36(3):346-351.
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赵良杰 中国地质大学(北京)水资源与环境学院;中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/国土资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室 
夏日元 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/国土资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室 
杨 杨 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/国土资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室 
邵景力 中国地质大学(北京)水资源与环境学院 
易连兴 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/国土资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室 
王 喆 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所/国土资源部、广西岩溶动力学重点实验室 
基金项目:国家青年科学基金项目“岩溶基岩孔隙、裂隙、管道水流交换机理与三重空隙介质数值模型研究” (41502252);地质调查项目“红水河上游岩溶流域1∶5万水文地质环境地质调查” (DD20160300)
中文摘要:针对岩溶管道水流特征,选取广西寨底岩溶流域为研究对象,分别采用三维有限差分地下水流动模型(MODFLOW)中的Drain和River模块概化模拟岩溶管道特征,结合管道内上游、中游及下游三个观测孔对比分析两种方法的适用性,结果表明:末期等水位线图中位于管道两侧处流线均有形状突变,符合实际管道水流动态特征,且能模拟出管道内水位变化趋势。最后分析两种方法模拟管道水流的原理,Drain模块中岩溶管道仅起排水作用,不允许管道内水流流向周围含水层,而River模块允许岩溶管道水与周围含水层水流交换,因而相对Drain模块而言,应用River模块概化模拟岩溶管道更加精确。 
中文关键词:管道水流  岩溶含水层  数值模拟  MODFLOW
 
Discussion and application of simulation methods for karst conduit flow based on MODFLOW
Abstract:The Zhaidi karst underground river system is located in Guangxi of southwest China and is a typical karst spring catchment with a mean annual discharge of around 1.62 m3/s. The catchment area is about 31.05 km2, with altitudes ranging from 190 m to 820 m a.s.l, and is developed mainly in the Devonian limestones with the landform type of karst peak-cluster depression. Precipitation mainly takes place in spring and summer and mean annual precipitation recorded from 1971 to 2000 is about 1,601.1 mm. The Zhaidi karst underground river system is characterized by extremely anisotropic fractured carbonate rocks and well interconnected karst conduits. There are eight karst underground river sub-systems and many sky-windows, pools and sinkholes. According to tracer tests, these eight subsystems are also well connected each other, where the groundwater runs from the sinkhole G37 through the karst conduits toward the outlet G47. Although numerical technique is a powerful tool for evaluating karst water resources, but it is difficult to accurately depict the pipe flow in the karst conduits in the model due to its anisotropic property. In this paper, the conduit flow of the Zhaidi karst basin was studied, by using Drain module and River module in MODFLOW to simulate the karst conduit, for which the applicability of the modules was examined by the data derived from three observation boreholes respectively situated in the upstream, midstream and downstream of the basin. To observe the groundwater level fluctuation and to obtain the time series data, two boreholes (ZK7 and ZK8) were drilled on the conduit with intention. From upstream to downstream, the distances between sinkhole G37 and borehole ZK7, borehole ZK7 and ZK8, borehole ZK8 to outlet G47 are 1,400 m, 900 m, 140 m, respectively. In addition, the outlet G47 was equipped with a rectangle sharp-crested weir with a level logger installed. The results showed that there was a sudden change of the water table contour near conduit and the water level variation trend was simulated, which meant both of method could conform to the actual conduit features. At last, the principle of two simulation methods were analyzed which showed karst conduit in Drain module only played a drainage role without exchanging water, while in River module it could exchange water with aquifer. It can be concluded that River module is better that Drain module to simulate karst conduit flow.
keywords:conduit flow, karst aquifer, numerical simulation, MODFLOW
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