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喀斯特断陷盆地环境地质分区及功能
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引用本文:王 宇,张 华,张 贵,王 波,彭淑惠,何绕生,周翠琼.喀斯特断陷盆地环境地质分区及功能[J].中国岩溶,2017,36(3):283-295.
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作者单位
王 宇 中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所云南省地质调查局 
张 华 云南省地质环境监测院 
张 贵 云南省地质环境监测院 
王 波 云南省地质环境监测院 
彭淑惠 云南省地质环境监测院 
何绕生 云南省地质环境监测院 
周翠琼 云南省地质环境监测院 
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目课题《断陷盆地地表、地下水资源高效利用与优化调控(2016YFC0502502)》
中文摘要:喀斯特断陷盆地是随着新生代高原隆升产生的断裂活动所引起的断块差异沉陷及溶蚀作用共同形成的山间盆地。由其以局部地块断陷为主导并伴随侵蚀及溶蚀的成因机制所决定,具有地貌分区明显、新构造运动强烈、水资源分布不均、土壤植被分带性强、气候垂向变化明显、人类活动区间差异大等特征。其中,地貌形态—成因类型既是地质环境本质特征的综合反映,又是对生境具有重大影响的自然因素,而且容易认识和识别,是环境地质分区的良好标志。以地貌形态—成因类型为标志,喀斯特断陷盆地可划分为侵溶蚀山区、溶蚀丘峰谷地区、沉积平坝区、侵溶蚀河谷区4个环境地质分区。侵溶蚀山区生态功能突出,溶蚀丘峰谷地区生态与经济功能并重,沉积平坝区经济功能尤显重要,侵蚀河谷区视所处大江大河流域的区位及宏观影响而定。资源开发和环境恢复治理,应与环境地质分区功能相协调,按流域系统评价和全面权衡利弊、科学规划布局,才能取得可持续的成效。
中文关键词:生态环境  自然资源  地貌类型  喀斯特  石漠化  地质灾害
 
Zoning of environmental geology and functions in karst fault-depression basins
Abstract:Intermountain basins in karst plateaus, known as karst fault-depression basins, resulted from subsidence and dissolution of fault blocks induced by Cenozoic tectonic uplift. Determined by the mechanism dominated by these processes, these basins are characterized by distinct geomorphic zones, intense neotectonic movements, uneven distribution of water resources, prominent zoning of soil and vegetation, significant vertical variations of climate, and large regional differences of human activities. Among them, the types and causes of the geomorphic landscapes are not only the overall reflection of the environmental geology but also the influencing factors of the habitat. Moreover, the types and causes of the landscapes are outstanding features for environmental geological zoning, as they can be easily observed and distinguished. Accordingly, the karst fault-depression basins can be divided into four environmental geological zones, (1) Erosion and karst mountain zone, (2) karst peak cluster-hill-valley zone, (3) deposition plain region, and (4) erosion and karst canyon. Each of these zones has different functions, i.e. (1) highly significant in ecological functions, (2) equally important in ecological and economic functions, and (3) most remarkable in economic functions. The functions of zone depend on the location of its associated river systems and the macro influence of its regional ecology. In this article, we show the three-dimensional maps detailing the environmental geological zones of karst fault-depression basins. These maps directly display the details of each zone and their interrelationships, revealing the structure of their water cycling systems and mass transport processes.
keywords:environmental geology, natural resources, geomorphic zones, karst, rocky desertification,geological hazard
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